Automated Syllabus of Natural Language Processing Papers

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Overview Of Natural Language Processing

  • Consider scaling up n-gram language models to match the data scale used in neural large language models, allowing for unbounded n, and utilizing a suffix array-based engine for efficient computation. (J. Liu et al. 2024)

  • Focus on identifying the critical data size in language models, which marks the phase transition from quick memorization to slow generalization, and study the impact of different data regimes on model performance. (Zhu et al. 2024)

Importance And Applications

  • Conduct surveys to accurately gauge the beliefs and sociological beliefs within your communities, allowing for improved communication and reduced misunderstandings. (Michael et al. 2022)

Challenges And Opportunities

  • Be aware of the potential for large language models like ChatGPT and GPT-4 to memorize certain books, leading to biased results in downstream tasks, and therefore advocate for transparency in training data to ensure accurate evaluations. (Chang et al. 2023)

History And Development Of Nlp

  • Carefully consider and control for various linguistic and psycholinguistic attributes while selecting word sets for psycholinguistic experiments using the MRC machine usable dictionary, which contains 150837 words with up to 26 attributes for each. (NA?)

Early Developments

  • Focus on identifying the most important keyword in the input message, establishing a minimal context around it, selecting an appropriate transformation rule, generating intelligent responses without keywords, and providing efficient editing capabilities for the script. (Weizenbaum 1966)

Fundamentals Of Language Models

  • Consider integrating both autoencoding and autoregressive pre-training objectives into a unified framework for protein language models, as this may lead to more versatile and robust models capable of handling a wider variety of protein-related tasks. (Bo Chen et al. 2024)

  • Focus on understanding the complex interplay between generative foundation models (GFMs) and the digital commons, considering factors such as data quality, accessibility, and the potential for negative consequences such as misinformation and bias. (S. Huang and Siddarth 2023)

  • Adopt a skeptical approach towards evaluating large language models (LLMs) performance on theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks, considering outlier failure cases as crucial evidence, and avoiding hasty conclusions based solely on average success rates. (Ullman 2023)

  • Leverage the power of large language models like Chat-GPT for document-level machine translation tasks, as they demonstrate superior performance over traditional commercial machine translation systems and advanced document-level machine translation methods, especially in terms of discourse modeling abilities. (Longyue Wang et al. 2023)

  • Consider the potential privacy leakage when implementing prompt-tuning language models, especially in real-world applications like email services, and develop appropriate mitigation measures. (S. Xie et al. 2023)

  • Carefully consider the ethical implications and potential risks associated with integrating artificial intelligence tools like ChatGPT into interactive learning environments, while also recognizing the benefits these tools can bring to fostering personalized, reflective, and integrated learning experiences. (Rospigliosi 2023)

  • Carefully consider the formulation of your input data when studying the social biases of language models, as different input formats can lead to varying levels of bias in the output. (Akyürek et al. 2022)

  • Avoid relying solely on participant self-reports regarding your mental processes, instead utilising a multi-paradigm approach combining statistical analysis of judgements with computational analysis of language features present in the self-descriptions to independently reconstruct the heuristics participants rely on. (Biderman and Raff 2022)

  • Consider developing a non-autoregressive language model based on continuous diffusions, called Diffusion-LM, which enables simple gradient-based algorithms to perform complex, controllable generation tasks, significantly outperforming prior work. (Kitaev and Klein 2018)

  • Utilise the “straight-through Gumbel-softmax estimator” technique to make the process of generating messages fully differentiable, allowing for effective backpropagation and thus facilitating the development of a communication protocol within multi-agent games. (Bengio, Léonard, and Courville 2013)

  • Consider utilizing a hierarchical Bayesian language model based on Pitman-Yor processes for your studies, as it provides superior cross entropy results compared to interpolated Kneser-Ney and similar performance to modified Kneser-Ney, while offering the benefits of Bayesian probabilistic models. (Teh 2006)

  • Conduct multiple experiments using various methods to examine the effects of different factors on the processing of fictive motion sentences, such as travel distance, travel rate, and difficulty of terrain, in order to better understand the role of mental simulation in comprehending these types of sentences. (NA?)

  • Utilise a novel statistical model for character level language modelling, which is parameterised by a program from a domain-specific language (DSL) allowing expression of non-trivial data dependencies. This model offers similar precision to neural networks, but shares advantages with n-gram models such as faster query times and ease of adding or removing training data samples. Furthermore, the model is interpretable and updatable through manual inspection of its underlying program. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the potential benefits and challenges of implementing large language models in education, focusing on developing appropriate competencies among teachers and learners, adopting a clear pedagogical approach centered around critical thinking and fact-checking, and addressing issues like bias, human oversight, and misuse responsibly. (NA?)

Probabilistic Models

  • Consider utilizing a hierarchical Bayesian language model based on Pitman-Yor processes, which can effectively capture the power-law distributions found in natural languages and provide superior cross entropy results compared to traditional smoothing methods like interpolated Kneser-Ney. (Sadat and Habash 2006)

  • Explore the use of aggregate and mixed-order Markov models as alternatives to traditional n-gram models in language processing tasks, as these models can effectively bridge the gap between different order n-grams and significantly reduce the perplexity of unseen word combinations. (Saul and Pereira 1997)

Neural Network Based Models

  • Utilize diagnostic classifiers to gain a comprehensive understanding of how neural language models handle linguistic information like subject-verb agreement, and subsequently leverage this knowledge to enhance the models performance.’ (Giulianelli et al. 2018)

Transformer Models

  • Utilise the Data Selection with Importance Resampling (DSIR) framework when selecting pretraining data for language models. This involves mapping raw and target data onto a feature space, estimating importance weights within this space, and then sampling a subset of raw data based on these weights. By doing so, researchers can ensure your chosen data matches the desired target distribution, leading to improved performance in downstream tasks. (S. M. Xie et al. 2023)

  • Focus on developing comprehensive strategies for promoting digital language equality across multiple domains, including language resources, text analysis, speech processing, machine translation, information extraction and retrieval, natural language generation and summarization, and human-computer interaction. (NA?)

Transformer Based Language Models

  • Consider using BayesPrompt, a method that generates discriminative prompts for large-scale pre-trained language models by approximating the debiased factual distributions of downstream domains, to improve the accuracy of few-shot inference. (J. Li et al. 2024)

  • Incorporate conceptual knowledge into pre-trained language models through a novel pre-training objective called entity concept prediction (ECP), which leverages external taxonomies to improve the models understanding of entities and your relationships within a hierarchical structure.’ (Xintao Wang et al. 2024)

  • Consider developing self-improving reward models that continuously update during LLM alignment, rather than freezing them, to overcome limitations associated with the size and quality of human preference data. (W. Yuan et al. 2024)

  • Explore the behavior of smaller language models when trained with a significantly larger number of tokens than what is suggested by the scaling law (Hoffmann et al., 2022), as they could potentially demonstrate competitive performance compared to existing open-source language models of similar sizes. (P. Zhang et al. 2024)

  • Focus on collecting diverse and high-quality data, carefully curating and deduplicating it, and then utilizing advanced techniques like LoRa instruction finetuning to train more effective and efficient language models. (Anand et al. 2023)

  • Adopt a hybrid approach between traditional machine learning evaluations and psychology-style probing to better capture the unique characteristics and potential of advanced language models like GPT-4. (Bubeck et al. 2023)

  • Adopt a holistic approach towards studying the life cycle of knowledge in pre-trained language models (PLMs), considering its acquisition, maintenance, usage, and updates, rather than focusing on individual stages. (Cao et al. 2023)

  • Systematically analyze and compare the performance of open-source large language models (LLMs) against ChatGPT across various tasks and benchmarks to gain a comprehensive understanding of your relative strengths and limitations. (Hailin Chen et al. 2023)

  • Consider using Uprise, a universal prompt retrieval system, to enhance the performance of Large Language Models (LLMs) in a cross-task and cross-model scenario, allowing them to better handle unseen task types and different LLMs. (D. Cheng et al. 2023)

  • Consider using Black-Box Prompt Optimization (BPO) as an alternative to traditional alignment methods for large language models (LLMs), as it allows for efficient and interpretable alignment without requiring modification of the underlying LLMs. (J. Cheng et al. 2023)

  • Carefully consider the sensitivity and robustness of large language models to prompt templates, particularly in less studied languages like Japanese, as even slight modifications in sentence structure can lead to significant changes in model performance. (Gan and Mori 2023)

  • Carefully consider the potential impact of advanced language models on influence operations, taking into account the various ways in which these models could alter the actors involved, the behaviors employed, and the content produced. (Goldstein et al. 2023)

  • Prioritize improving the base capabilities of open-source language models through scaling, better pre-training data, and enhanced pre-training techniques, instead of solely focusing on imitating proprietary models through fine-tuning on imitation data. (Gudibande et al. 2023)

  • Utilize large language models (LLMs) in conjunction with agent-based modeling (ABM) to create more realistic simulations of human behavior, particularly in complex social systems. (Junprung 2023)

  • Recognize the inherent tradeoff between calibration and hallucination in language models, and explore methods to balance these competing demands. (Kalai and Vempala 2023)

  • Leverage the OpenAssistant Conversations dataset, a large-scale, human-generated, human-annotated assistant-style conversation corpus, to enhance the alignment of large language models with human preferences, thereby improving your usability and accessibility across various domains. (Köpf et al. 2023)

  • Employ careful prompt engineering to maximize the accuracy and value of responses obtained from large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT in geotechnical engineering, while being mindful of potential hallucinations and misalignments inherent in these models. (Kumar 2023)

  • Focus on developing comprehensive benchmarks for tool-augmented LLMs that encompass a wide range of domains and APIs, simulate real-world multi-turn dialogues, and cover essential capabilities such as planning, retrieving, and calling APIs. (M. Li et al. 2023)

  • Consider employing random sampling techniques when optimizing prompts for language models, as they can achieve state-of-the-art performance and potentially reduce reliance on human expertise. (Y. Lu et al. 2023)

  • Consider employing small language models (SLMs) with prompt-learning paradigms for efficient domain-specific text classification, especially in situations with limited labeled data, as they can achieve comparable accuracy levels to larger models with fewer parameters. (H. Luo, Liu, and Esping 2023)

  • Adopt a combination of graph-of-thought prompting and optimization techniques to generate better outputs in natural language processing tasks. (Muktadir 2023)

  • Consider implementing a LLM-Augmenter system to enhance the performance of large language models like ChatGPT by integrating external knowledge and automated feedback mechanisms, thereby reducing hallucinations while maintaining fluency and informativeness. (B. Peng et al. 2023)

  • Consider employing a structured framework for LLM-based AI Agents, which includes task instruction, designed prompt, tool set, LLM, intermediate output, and final answer, to evaluate the Task Planning and Tool Usage (TPTU) abilities of existing open-source LLMs. (Ruan et al. 2023)

  • Consider developing a hybrid human-and-large language model (LLM) evaluation methodology to assess the factuality and conversationality of LLM-based chatbots, focusing on understudied areas such as recent and tail topics. (Semnani et al. 2023)

  • Explore the use of large language models like GPT-3.5 for intelligent text entry tasks, as they can be easily adapted through prompting rather than expensive data collection and fine-tuning, leading to increased efficiency and performance. (J. Shen et al. 2023)

  • Consider implementing a novel framework called Reflexion, which enhances language agents learning efficiency by verbally reflecting on task feedback signals and storing them in an episodic memory buffer, leading to improved decision-making in subsequent trials.’ (Shinn et al. 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the performance of ChatGPT in various sentiment analysis tasks and settings, comparing it against fine-tuned BERT and state-of-the-art models, to better understand its strengths and limitations as a universal sentiment analyzer. (Z. Wang et al. 2023)

  • Consider combining domain-specific and general data sources when training large language models, as this approach can lead to superior performance on domain-specific tasks while maintaining strong performance on general-purpose benchmarks. (S. Wu et al. 2023)

  • Consider using automated methods, specifically Reprompting, to identify optimal Chain-of-Thought (CoT) prompts for large language models (LLMs) in tasks requiring multi-step reasoning, as it outperforms traditional approaches such as zero-shot, few-shot, and human-written CoT prompting. (W. Xu, Banburski-Fahey, and Jojic 2023)

  • Employ a combination of evidence and question decomposition strategies to enhance the effectiveness of large language models in table-based reasoning tasks. (Y. Ye et al. 2023)

  • Adopt Language Model Programming (LMP) through the use of the Language Model Query Language (LMQL) to enhance the precision, efficiency, and effectiveness of your language model interactions, ultimately leading to improved downstream application performance. (Beurer-Kellner, Fischer, and Vechev 2023)

  • Consider using multiple prompts and automatic benchmarking to effectively evaluate the performance of large language model-generated code solutions, as demonstrated by the authors finding that selecting the best of 100 solutions generated by ChatGPT is competitive or better than the top-voted human solution on Stack Overflow for the range of problems tested.’ (Asare, Nagappan, and Asokan 2022)

  • Utilise the Pythia’ suite of large language models (LLMs) to investigate the development and evolution of LLMs during training and scaling, given its unique features of covering various model scales, consistent training data, and public availability of data and intermediate checkpoints.’ (Biderman, Bicheno, and Gao 2022)

  • Focus on understanding the underlying mechanisms behind the observed outcomes rather than just relying on statistical associations. (Shaobo Li et al. 2022)

  • Incorporate external tool interaction within your large language models to enable effective self-correction and enhance overall performance. (X. Lu et al. 2022)

  • Consider implementing a retrieval-augmented prompt learning framework like RetroPrompt to effectively decouple knowledge from memorization, thereby achieving improved generalization and memorization capabilities in various natural language processing tasks. (Hsu et al. 2021)

  • Carefully consider the possibility of imitative falsehoods when developing language models, as these falsehoods can arise from the models training objective and may not be addressed simply through scaling up the model.’ (S. Lin, Hilton, and Evans 2021)

  • Leverage the WikiGraphs dataset, which consists of Wikipedia articles paired with knowledge graphs extracted from Freebase, to advance the development of graph-to-text generation models, graph representation learning models, and text-conditioned graph generative models. (Luyu Wang et al. 2021)

  • Consider using a combination of autoencoding and autoregressive pre-training methods for your language models, as this approach effectively addresses the limitations of traditional autoencoding and autoregressive methods in handling context-dependent language generation tasks. (Bi et al. 2020)

  • Consider using deep learning techniques, specifically transformer models, to learn from real-world examples when developing automated unit test case generation tools, as demonstrated by the success of AthenaTest in producing accurate, human-readable, and effective test cases. (Tufano et al. 2020)

  • Utilize diagnostic classifiers and confusion scores to analyze the hierarchical and linear information encoded in BERTs self-attention layers, thereby gaining insight into the linguistic structures modeled by the transformer-based model.’ (Y. Lin, Tan, and Frank 2019)

  • Consider developing a conversational reasoning model that strategically traverses through a large-scale common fact knowledge graph (KG) to introduce engaging and contextually diverse entities and attributes, and collect a new open-ended dialog-KG parallel corpus like OpenDialKG to facilitate this study. (Reddy, Chen, and Manning 2018)

  • Consider incorporating language structures into your pre-training process for deep language understanding tasks, specifically by using two auxiliary tasks to leverage the sequential order of words and sentences, resulting in improved performance across multiple natural language processing tasks. (Bowman et al. 2015)

  • Consider using elastic weight consolidation (EWC) for efficient multi-domain language model pre-training, as it provides the best overall scores with minimal performance drops across multiple tasks. (Goodfellow et al. 2013)

  • Develop a prompt-based framework for resolving the acronym disambiguation problem, incorporating a dynamic negative sampling strategy and a novel hinge loss to create a more robust system. (NA?)

  • Employ well-trained large language models like GPT-4 for biomedical question answering tasks due to your superior semantic understanding, retrieval, and generation abilities compared to traditional methods. (NA?)

  • Focus on developing syntax-aware pretraining and prompt engineering methods to optimize the retrieval of relational knowledge from large language models, taking into account the impact of syntax on the reliability and robustness of the results. (NA?)

  • Employ a combination of clear and specific instructions, explicit constraints, experimentation with context and examples, and leveraging different types of questions to effectively engineer prompts for ChatGPT, thereby improving the quality and relevance of its responses. (NA?)

  • Consider employing the long-answer prompt learning method (KLAPrompt) to effectively integrate semantic knowledge into pre-trained language models, thereby improving your performance across various natural language processing tasks. (NA?)

Attention Mechanism

  • Consider using the “Zero-shot chain-of-thought” prompting technique to generate multiple algebraic expressions or python functions to solve the same math problem in different ways, thus raising the confidence level in the output results. (Imani, Du, and Shrivastava 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the consistency behavior of large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT and GPT-4 across various dimensions, such as semantic, negation, symmetric, and transitive consistency, to ensure your reliability and trustworthiness in practical applications. (Jang and Lukasiewicz 2023)

  • Be aware of the potential issue of “task contamination” in zero-shot and few-shot evaluations of large language models, which can lead to inflated performance metrics due to the presence of task training examples in the pre-training data. (C. Li and Flanigan 2023)

  • Develop a novel learning framework called Chain of Hindsight (CoH) to effectively harness all available feedback data to enhance model performance without relying on reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF), while maintaining the same training objective as pretraining, making it simple to train and easily scalable. (Hao Liu, Sferrazza, and Abbeel 2023)

  • Explore the development of Augmented Language Models (ALMs) that integrate reasoning skills and the ability to utilize tools, thereby enhancing the performance and capabilities of existing language models. (Mialon et al. 2023)

  • Consider the potential impact of non-identifiability of self-attention weights on the interpretation of attention mechanisms in transformer models, and explore the use of effective attention as a complementary diagnostic tool. (Brunner et al. 2019)

  • Consider integrating knowledge graphs (KGs) into language representation (LR) models to enhance your performance in domain-specific tasks, while addressing heterogeneity embedding space (HES) and knowledge noise (KN) issues through techniques such as soft-position and visible matrices. (W. Liu et al. 2019)

  • Consider using procedurally generated psychological experiments rather than vignette-based tasks to evaluate the capabilities of large language models like GPT-3, as these methods help to avoid potential biases arising from the models exposure to similar tasks during training.’ (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the types of questions they pose to AI systems, distinguishing between those that are irreversible (where the source of the answer cannot be determined) and those that are reversible (which reveal the source of the response), as this impacts the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from the responses. (NA?)

Pre-Training Techniques

  • Utilize distant supervision to generate pre-training examples that require long-range reasoning, enabling language models to effectively handle multi-hop and hybrid contexts. (X. Deng et al. 2021)

  • Carefully consider the choice of pre-training corpus, pre-training objective, and vocabulary size when developing transformer-based models for abstractive text summarization. (Jingqing Zhang et al. 2019)

Applications Of Large Language Models

  • Carefully consider the choice of large language models (LLMs) and prompt templates when attempting to achieve optimal grammatical error correction (GEC) performance, taking into account factors such as model architecture, size, and domain-specific adaptability. (Davis et al. 2024)

  • Carefully consider the selection of appropriate pre-trained language models (PLMs) and large language models (LLMs) for processing scientific text, taking into account factors such as domain, language, and size, in order to optimize your performance across various tasks and datasets. (Ho et al. 2024)

  • Focus on developing context enhancement strategies for large language models (LLMs) in order to achieve significant improvements in performance for health prediction tasks, particularly by incorporating health knowledge context in prompts. (Yubin Kim et al. 2024)

  • Leverage large language models (LLMs) to generate textual inputs for machine learning (ML) models, instead of relying solely on manually extracted material properties, to improve the efficiency and accuracy of material classification workflows. (S. Liu et al. 2024)

  • Use a test-based, multi-stage, code-oriented iterative flow, called AlphaCodium, to improve the performance of large language models (LLMs) on code generation tasks. (Ridnik, Kredo, and Friedman 2024)

  • Carefully examine the biases present in large language models (LLMs) when integrating generated and retrieved contexts, particularly regarding text similarity and semantic completeness, to optimize your performance in open-domain question answering tasks. (Tan et al. 2024)

  • Carefully consider the implications of integrating artificial intelligence (AI) into scientific publishing, including issues related to originality, ownership, diversity, and potential biases, and establish guidelines and safeguards to address these challenges. (Grimaldi and Ehrler 2023)

  • Carefully select and optimize your prompt templates for the target task, considering factors such as model selection, prompt shaping, prompting approach, and training strategy, to maximize the effectiveness of large language models like Codex in generating high-quality OCL constraints from natural language specifications. (Abukhalaf, Hamdaqa, and Khomh 2023)

  • Conduct a large-scale study to evaluate the effectiveness of large language models like GPT-3.x for root causing and mitigating production incidents, utilizing semantic and lexical metrics alongside human evaluation with actual incident owners. (Ahmed et al. 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the performance of ChatGPT against specialized models for specific downstream tasks, considering factors such as classification accuracy, unweighted average recall, and statistical significance tests, to determine its suitability for addressing various affective computing problems. (Amin, Cambria, and Schuller 2023)

  • Utilize an entity-centric light-weight personalization layer to enable knowledge-augmentation of large language models (LLMs) with contextual entities retrieved from a personal knowledge store, which is derived from existing search logs that capture users interactions with modern search engines.’ (Baek et al. 2023)

  • Consider using large language models, particularly ChatGPT, for reference-free text quality evaluation, as these models demonstrate superior performance compared to most existing automatic metrics, especially when generating an explicit score for text quality. (Y. Chen et al. 2023)

  • Focus on developing a comprehensive AI chain methodology to systematize prompt engineering practices, improving the modularity, composability, debuggability, and reusability of AI functionalities. (Y. Cheng et al. 2023)

  • Carefully engineer prompts to effectively guide large language models towards accurate job type classification, as demonstrated by the superior performance of a zero-shot gpt-3.5-turbo classifier over other models in a real-world setting. (Clavié et al. 2023)

  • Create a diverse and challenging dataset like GHOSTS to thoroughly assess the mathematical capabilities of large language models like ChatGPT and GPT-4, allowing for a more accurate understanding of your strengths and limitations. (Frieder et al. 2023)

  • Explore the potential of ChatGPT for performing human-like summarization evaluation, as it demonstrates promising capabilities in completing annotations smoothly across various evaluation methods and outperforming traditional automatic evaluation metrics on certain datasets. (M. Gao et al. 2023)

  • Integrate Large Language Models (LLMs) with domain-specific expert models to form a comprehensive AI Agent capable of solving complex tasks, and continuously improve the LLMs performance through a Reinforcement Learning from Task Feedback (RLTF) mechanism.’ (Ge et al. 2023)

  • Focus on creating a diverse and representative dataset, called the Human ChatGPT Comparison Corpus (HC3), to compare and contrast the responses of human experts and ChatGPT across various domains, enabling better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of both parties, and informing future development of large language models. (B. Guo et al. 2023)

  • Treat large language models (LLMs) as participants in psychology experiments, drawing on diverse subfields of psychology to inform behavioural tests, establishing methodological standards for prompt designs, and carefully interpreting observed behavioural patterns. (Hagendorff 2023)

  • Utilize advanced natural language processing techniques, such as transformer-based large language models, to efficiently produce custom event data without relying on traditional dictionary-based methods, which are prone to errors and limitations. (Halterman et al. 2023)

  • Utilize a combination of existing and newly developed open-source biomedical datasets, adapted into an instruction-following format, to fine-tune large language models for effective medical applications. (Han et al. 2023)

  • Adopt a two-step approach called explain-then-annotate’ to improve the annotation quality of large language models like GPT-3.5, which involves having the model explain the rationale behind the ground truth label or answer for a particular example, followed by constructing a few-shot chain-of-thought prompt with the self-generated explanations to annotate data.’ (He et al. 2023)

  • Implement an iterative reviewer-author prompt editing system, called Evoke, to optimize the performance of large language models (LLMs) in various tasks. (Xinyu Hu et al. 2023)

  • Consider implementing a hypernetwork prompt guided continual pre-training (HPrompt-CPT) method to strike a balance between forgetting, adaptability, and generalization in continual pre-training scenarios. (G. Jiang et al. 2023)

  • Consider fine-tuning code language models (CLMs) with automated program repair (APR) training data to improve your performance in fixing bugs, as evidenced by the significant improvements observed in the study. (N. Jiang et al. 2023)

  • Thoroughly evaluate the performance of large language models (LLMs) in recommendation systems using various approaches such as zero-shot, few-shot, and fine-tuning, comparing them to traditional recommendation models, and considering factors like model size and data efficiency. (Kang et al. 2023)

  • Utilise a recursive criticism and improvement (RCI) approach when working with large language models (LLMs) to optimise your performance in executing computer tasks. (G. Kim, Baldi, and McAleer 2023)

  • Consider using large language models (LLMs) to generate code explanations for students, as they are perceived as more accurate and easier to understand than those created by students themselves, making them potentially valuable educational resources. (Leinonen et al. 2023)

  • Employ the novel role-playing framework combined with inception prompting to enable autonomous cooperation among communicative agents, thereby reducing human intervention and improving the effectiveness of conversational language models. (G. Li et al. 2023)

  • Leverage ChatGPTs capabilities in natural language understanding and generation to develop efficient and reliable evaluation metrics for assessing the factual consistency of generated summaries, despite some current limitations such as lexical bias, false reasoning, and inadequate alignment.’ (Z. Luo, Xie, and Ananiadou 2023)

  • Utilize “Prompt Middleware” - a framework that maps options in the User Interface (UI) to generate prompts for Large Language Models (LLMs), thereby enabling direct integration of LLMs into user interfaces and incorporating domain expertise into the prompting process. (MacNeil et al. 2023)

  • Consider utilising dialog-enabled resolving agents (DERA) to enhance the accuracy and completeness of large language model completions in safety-critical applications such as healthcare. (Nair et al. 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the quality of hints generated by large language models like ChatGPT before using them in educational settings, as they can often contain incorrect answers or solution steps. (Pardos and Bhandari 2023)

  • Consider utilizing an interactive interview format when studying the abductive reasoning capabilities of large language models like GPT-4, as it enables a more comprehensive assessment of your performance in handling complex, real-world scenarios. (Pareschi 2023)

  • Carefully consider the choice of language model, task type, and prompt structure when evaluating the zero-shot learning capabilities of large language models like ChatGPT, as your performance varies across different tasks and prompt conditions. (C. Qin et al. 2023)

  • Leverage high-quality public opinion polls and your associated human responses to create a quantitative framework for investigating the opinions reflected by language models (LMs) and your alignment with various demographic groups. (Santurkar et al. 2023)

  • Consider utilizing a flexible encoder-decoder architecture for large language models (LLMs) in code understanding and generation tasks, along with a diverse mix of pretraining objectives on unimodal and bimodal data, to effectively handle a wide range of downstream tasks. (Y. Wang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully design prompts for ChatGPT to ensure accurate evaluation of natural language generation (NLG) models across different tasks and aspects. (Z. Wang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully modify the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) to suit the text-based input requirements of ChatGPT, ensuring that the questions remain challenging and relevant to the subject matter, while avoiding potential biases introduced by the AIs exposure to certain types of content.’ (West 2023)

  • Consider using large language models (LLMs) as the basis for developing more advanced and capable AI agents, due to your demonstrated versatility and ability to perform well across various domains. (Xi et al. 2023)

  • Consider enhancing large language models (LLMs) with knowledge graphs (KGs) to improve your ability to recall and apply factual knowledge, ultimately resulting in more informed and accurate responses to user queries. (L. Yang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the suitability of large language models (LLMs) versus fine-tuned models for your specific NLP tasks, considering factors such as data availability, task complexity, and desired performance levels. (Jingfeng Yang et al. 2023)

  • Adopt a two-stage optimization process for clinical note generation, combining Automatic Prompt Optimization (APO)-GPT4 for consistency and expert input for personalization. (Z. Yao et al. 2023)

  • Utilise the Tree of Thoughts’ (ToT) framework for language model inference, which enables exploration over coherent units of text (‘thoughts’) that serve as intermediate steps toward problem solving, allowing for deliberate decision making, self-evaluation, and strategic lookahead. (S. Yao et al. 2023)

  • Focus on developing meta-prompt components that provide clear instructions and context, such as a two-step task description and a step-by-step reasoning template, to enhance the performance of large language models in automatic prompt engineering. (Q. Ye et al. 2023)

  • Explore the potential of leveraging the outputs of Large Language Models (LLMs) to refine reasoning paths iteratively, as this can lead to improved performance in reasoning tasks. (Zheng et al. 2023)

  • Utilize a combination of supervised and unsupervised methods when incorporating large language models (LLMs) into your computational social science (CSS) workflows, allowing for improved accuracy and efficiency in analyzing textual data. (Ziems et al. 2023)

  • Utilize multiple strategies to detect and prevent academic dishonesty, including educating students on plagiarism, setting clear guidelines for resource usage, monitoring student work closely, and leveraging advanced technology and techniques to recognize the characteristics of AI-generated content. (Cotton, Cotton, and Shipway 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the strengths and limitations of ChatGPT, particularly in terms of its ability to accurately process and interpret complex medical and scientific information, before incorporating it into your workflows. (Cascella et al. 2023)

  • Carefully consider the limitations and potential misuses of ChatGPT when incorporating it into your workflows, particularly regarding critical thinking, data reliability, and ethical implications. (Arif, Munaf, and Ul-Haque 2023)

  • Consider incorporating ChatGPT, a large language model developed by OpenAI, into your workflows for computer programming tasks due to its extensive capabilities in areas such as code completion, correction, prediction, error fixing, optimization, document generation, chatbot development, text-to-code generation, and technical query answering. (Biswas 2023)

  • Focus on developing a diverse range of medical question-answering datasets, incorporating various medical domains and formats, while ensuring that the evaluation process includes multiple aspects such as factuality, consistency, safety, harm, and bias. (Singhal et al. 2023)

  • Utilize a systematic literature review (SLR) methodology when studying stance detection, as it allows for a comprehensive understanding of the field and enables the identification of potential areas for improvement. (Alturayeif, Luqman, and Ahmed 2023)

  • Carefully select and categorize questions, gather data from reliable sources, ensure inter-rater reliability, and conduct appropriate statistical analysis to accurately assess the performance of AI models like ChatGPT in addressing complex medical queries. (Samaan et al. 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the limitations and capabilities of AI tools like ChatGPT in handling complex tasks and decision-making processes, especially in areas requiring deep understanding and critical thinking. (Kortemeyer 2023)

  • Consider building a Large Recommendation Language Model (LRLM) to bridge the gap between Large Language Models (LLMs) and the recommendation task, and improve the recommendation capabilities of LLMs through instruction tuning. (Bao et al. 2023)

  • Consider the potential benefits and drawbacks of incorporating AI code-generators in educational settings, and carefully assess your impact on learning outcomes, code comprehension, and dependency formation among novice programmers. (Kazemitabaar et al. 2023)

  • Utilize artificial intelligence (AI) tools, specifically Large Language Models (LLMs), to efficiently generate varied examples, explanations, low-stakes tests, and assessments for enhancing student learning and retention, while ensuring proper evaluation and adaptation of AI-generated content to fit the specific needs and context of your courses. (Mollick and Mollick 2023)

  • Consider utilising language models to integrate implicit knowledge of drivers in the route optimization process, thereby creating a novel algorithm that emulates real-world driving behaviors. (Y. Liu, Wu, et al. 2023)

  • Consider utilizing large language models (LLMs) for generating code as policies (CaP) in order to achieve adaptable, generalizable, and efficient solutions for various robotics tasks, leveraging the power of hierarchical code generation and third-party libraries. (J. Liang et al. 2022)

  • Carefully engineer prompts to optimize the performance of large language models like ChatGPT in generating legal texts, considering factors such as tone, structure, and specificity of instructions. (Liévin et al. 2022)

  • Utilise advanced AI techniques, such as deep learning and prompt engineering, to generate health awareness messages that are comparable in quality and clarity to human-generated messages, thus improving the efficiency and efficacy of health communication efforts. (Lim and Schmälzle 2022)

  • Consider deploying and evaluating large language model (LLM)-generated code explanations in classroom settings to assess your effectiveness in supporting students learning and understanding of code.’ (MacNeil et al. 2022)

  • Consider developing a pre-trained language model specifically tailored to social science texts, like SsciBERT, to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of natural language processing tasks in the field. (S. Shen et al. 2022)

  • Consider using Legal Prompt Engineering (LPE) with Large Language Models (LLMs) for Legal Judgment Prediction (LJP) tasks, as it demonstrates promising results in a zero-shot setting, despite falling short of current state-of-the-art supervised approaches. (Trautmann, Petrova, and Schilder 2022)

  • Consider incorporating interactive natural language processing (iNLP) into your work, which involves integrating language models with external objects like humans, knowledge bases, tools, models, and environments to overcome limitations and advance the field of NLP. (Agrawal and Carpuat 2022)

  • Utilise the concept of algorithmic fidelity’, defined as the degree to which the complex patterns of relationships between ideas, attitudes, and socio-cultural contexts within a model accurately mirror those within a range of human sub-populations, to ensure the validity and applicability of your findings derived from language models. (Sorensen et al. 2022)

  • Consider utilizing large language models (LLMs) for coding open-text survey responses due to your near-human accuracy, potential for significant time and cost savings, and ease of implementation compared to traditional supervised learning methods. (Mellon et al. 2022)

  • Carefully design prompting templates and experiment with bootstrapping strategies to mitigate the challenges faced by large language models in accurately perceiving the order of historical interactions and avoiding popularity or position biases in the context of recommender systems. (“Proceedings of the Web Conference 2021” 2021)

  • Consider the tradeoff between latency, robustness, and effectiveness when implementing deep NLP models in search systems, and explore ways to optimize your performance through various techniques like unnormalized language models, two-pass ranking strategies, and document pre-computation. (Weiwei Guo et al. 2021)

  • Focus on developing more effective prompts for large language models, moving beyond the few-shot paradigm and utilizing techniques such as 0-shot prompts, metaprompts, and natural language semiotics to better locate and communicate tasks to the models. (Reynolds and McDonell 2021)

  • Utilise a large-scale pre-trained model named MusicBERT for music understanding tasks, which uses a novel music encoding method called OctupleMIDI and a bar-level masking strategy to effectively process symbolic music data. (Zeng et al. 2021)

  • Consider the implications of integrating large language models (LLMs) into intelligent personal assistants (IPAs) for improving scalability, capability, and usefulness, while addressing challenges related to fundamental capabilities, efficiency, and security & privacy. (Y. Li and Riva 2021)

  • Utilize knowledge-augmented methods when working with natural language processing, as they enhance the capabilities of models by providing them with external information like common sense, logic, and other relevant details. (Jian Yang et al. 2021)

  • Carefully consider the role of word highlighting in facilitating user evaluations of non-factoid answers, as it can improve efficiency without compromising accuracy. (Bolotova et al. 2020)

  • Consider utilising ChatGPT-3 as a tool to enhance efficiency and effectiveness across multiple domains, from academic writing to detecting security vulnerabilities, but must remain aware of its current limitations such as cost, accessibility, and incomplete comprehension of nuanced language. (B. Li et al. 2019)

  • Carefully choose how to represent raw text data as a numerical array, considering factors such as document division, feature selection, and encoding dependence among language elements, before applying appropriate statistical methods to map the numerical array to predicted values of unknown outcomes. (Gentzkow, Kelly, and Taddy 2019)

  • Consider combining weakly supervised components such as aspect extractors and sentiment predictors when developing neural frameworks for opinion summarization from online product reviews. (Angelidis and Lapata 2018)

  • Utilize Adversarial Filtering (AF) to mitigate annotation artifacts and human biases in your datasets, thereby improving the reliability and validity of your studies. (Zellers et al. 2018)

  • Employ propensity score stratification to reduce bias from confounding factors when studying the impact of early alcohol usage on college success using longitudinal social media analysis. (Kiciman, Counts, and Gasser 2018)

  • Consider using text classification methods, specifically bag of words (BOW) and linear support vector machines (SVM) classifiers, to accurately predict court rulings, law areas, and dates of rulings in legal documents, while taking into account the potential impact of time periods on the textual form of case descriptions. (Şulea et al. 2017)

  • Focus on evaluating the performance of conversational models in real-world settings rather than solely relying on synthetic datasets, and consider incorporating customer profile features to enhance model performance. (Bordes, Boureau, and Weston 2016)

  • Consider using a distantly supervised model to identify dialectal language in social media, specifically African-American English (AAE), by leveraging demographics associated with geo-located messages. (Blodgett, Green, and O’Connor 2016)

  • Focus on analyzing counselor behaviors rather than individual conversations, as this approach provides a clearer picture of general conversation strategies and helps improve counselor training. (Althoff, Clark, and Leskovec 2016)

  • Focus on evaluating the performance of conversational models in real-world settings rather than solely on synthetic datasets, and consider incorporating customer profile features to enhance model performance. (Bordes, Boureau, and Weston 2016)

  • Utilize a combination of advanced deep learning techniques, such as LSTMs and sequence-to-sequence learning, along with innovative methods for semantic clustering and response set generation, to create effective systems for automated email response suggestion. (W. Chan et al. 2015)

  • Focus on addressing specific problems, architectures, and cognitive aspects of language, rather than solely pursuing improvements in state-of-the-art metrics on benchmark tasks. (Manning 2015)

  • Consider utilizing the stringdist package for efficient and accurate computation of various string distances and approximate text matching tasks across diverse platforms. (Mark 2014)

  • Focus on developing and validating appropriate automated text analysis methods tailored to specific research questions and datasets, rather than seeking a universally applicable solution. (Grimmer and Stewart 2013)

  • Adopt a model-based approach to avoid inefficiency and utilize shrinkage and regularization techniques to prevent overfitting when attempting to identify and analyze political content in texts. (Monroe, Colaresi, and Quinn 2008)

  • Consider using Chain Augmented Naive Bayes (CAN) models for text classification tasks, as they offer improved performance compared to traditional naive Bayes models while maintaining simplicity and allowing for the use of advanced smoothing techniques from statistical language modeling. (F. Peng, Schuurmans, and Wang 2004)

  • Carefully consider the impact of data preprocessing steps like removing duplicates or irrelevant folders, as well as the potential limitations of using thread information due to possible redundancy issues, when working with datasets like the Enron corpus for email classification tasks. (“Machine Learning: ECML 2004” 2004)

  • Employ a desk research approach, utilizing secondary sources of information, while maintaining flexibility in identifying relevant reference sources, and focusing on specific keywords to analyze the role of ChatGPT in enhancing student productivity in higher education. (NA?)

  • Explore the potential benefits and risks of integrating AI-generated text into academic writing and research processes, while ensuring proper monitoring, transparency, and adherence to ethical guidelines. (NA?)

  • Utilize full-length papers in addition to abstracts for information extraction tasks, as significant amounts of valuable information are often hidden in the body of the paper. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the unique linguistic features of text-based asynchronous computer-mediated communication (TA-CMC) compared to other modes of communication, validate existing cues for deception detection in TA-CMC, and focus on objective, context-insensitive linguistics-based cues (LBC) for automating deception detection. (NA?)

  • Employ a comprehensive annotation scheme to accurately capture the nuances of opinions, emotions, sentiments, speculations, evaluations, and other private states in language, allowing for better understanding and analysis of these complex linguistic phenomena. (NA?)

  • Utilise a combination of term-counting and machine learning techniques to achieve higher levels of accuracy in sentiment classification tasks. (NA?)

  • Carefully map existing prompt engineering guidelines onto specific requirements engineering activities, considering both the advantages and limitations of doing so, to effectively leverage large language models in the field. (NA?)

  • Leverage ontological resources, integrate diverse text processing applications, and use an expanded pattern language that mixes syntactic and semantic elements and variable ordering when developing information extraction systems. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the structural and content differences between abstracts and full-text articles when conducting biomedical text mining, as these differences can impact the performance of text mining tools and the extraction of certain data types. (NA?)

  • Adopt a modular, pipelined system design for natural language processing (NLP) tasks, allowing for mixing-and-matching of various algorithms and improving overall system robustness. (NA?)

  • Carefully engineer prompts for ChatGPT to optimize its performance in detecting plagiarism in simple programming exercises, as the choice of prompt significantly affects the accuracy of the model. (NA?)

  • Focus on developing models for recognizing humor and irony in social media using textual features, specifically those related to ambiguity, polarity, unexpectedness, and emotional scenarios. (NA?)

  • Utilize a combination of world knowledge, event extraction methods, and rule extraction and generalization techniques to effectively predict future events based on existing data. (NA?)

  • Consider incorporating multiple modalities (such as linguistic, audio, and visual features) in your sentiment analysis studies, as doing so can significantly improve the accuracy of your predictions. (NA?)

  • Focus on the potential benefits of ChatGPT for student learning and academic integrity, rather than solely focusing on the risks and negative consequences of its usage. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the use of multiple prompt engineering techniques in creative tasks, as combining too many techniques may not necessarily enhance idea quality, and a targeted approach selecting specific techniques based on the desired outcome may be more effective. (NA?)

  • Utilize a combination of search techniques (such as bigram hashing and TF-IDF matching) and machine comprehension models (multi-layer recurrent neural networks) to effectively answer open-domain questions using Wikipedia as the primary knowledge source. (NA?)

  • Consider employing mixed-initiative interface designs when integrating large language models (LLMs) into functional user interfaces, as demonstrated through the successful implementation of OpenAIs Codex in an email client interface, resulting in a decrease in perceived workload and a 62.5% reduction in errors.’ (NA?)

  • Combine BERT-based deep learning approaches with parallel blocks of single-layer CNNs to improve the performance of fake news detection by capturing semantic and long-distance dependencies in sentences. (NA?)

  • Employ multiple language models, including lexical, IR-based, word2vec-based, and DL-based models, to comprehensively evaluate the correlation between requirements similarity and software similarity in the context of requirements-based code reuse. (NA?)

  • Employ an iterative methodology involving human-in-the-loop interaction between ChatGPT, Google Colab, and biomechanical models to generate accurate and efficient Python code for biomechanical simulations. (NA?)

  • Carefully evaluate the potential benefits and risks associated with integrating ChatGPT and other AI tools into your work, considering factors like academic integrity, privacy, cognitive biases, accessibility, commercialization, and ethical guidelines provided by organizations like UNESCO. (NA?)

  • Consider the limitations of current AI technology like ChatGPT in interpreting and answering complex medical questions, especially in high-stake situations like medical licensing exams, and recognize the need for continued improvement through deep learning. (NA?)

  • Employ AI-generated language models like ChatGPT to simulate doctor-patient consultations, thereby potentially improving patient education and satisfaction, while recognizing the limitations of AI in providing esoteric and personal advice. (NA?)

  • Explore the potential benefits of using prompt-based methods for contextual stance classification, as it offers a promising alternative to traditional supervised learning techniques, especially in situations where labeled training data is scarce. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the limitations and potential biases of using AI tools like ChatGPT in scientific research, while acknowledging your benefits in terms of knowledge summarization and innovation efficiency. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the selection of appropriate machine learning algorithms for text classification tasks in chatbot development, comparing your accuracies and choosing the optimal algorithm for your specific application. (NA?)

  • Maintain vigilance, integrate expert-driven fact-checking and verification processes, and encourage the development and implementation of open-source AI technology to address the concerns surrounding the use of large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT in academic research. (NA?)

  • Employ multiple evaluators when assessing the quality of answers provided by AI language models such as ChatGPT, in order to minimize bias and improve the accuracy and reliability of the evaluation. (NA?)

  • Conduct a narrative review analyzing current research, opinions, and published literature on AI and ChatGPT in the educational sector, focusing on the opportunities and challenges presented by these technologies. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the limitations and potential harms of using AI tools like ChatGPT for medical text simplification, emphasizing the importance of expert oversight and adaptation to the specific needs of the medical field. (NA?)

  • Carefully craft and optimize your prompts when engaging large language models (LLMs), taking into account factors such as priming, formatting, and uncertainty management, while also considering privacy concerns and the inherent limitations of these models. (NA?)

  • Employ effective prompt engineering methods to ensure accurate and reliable responses from generative language models (GLMs) in medical education applications. (NA?)

  • Utilize OpenAIs ChatGPT language model due to its scale, pre-training, versatility, efficiency, and quality, enabling it to generate scripts effectively in the field of cybersecurity.’ (NA?)

  • Consider employing a prompt engineering strategy that utilizes two different chemical string representation algorithms - one for the query and the other for the database - in order to improve the effectiveness of chemical similarity searches in identifying structurally distinct functional analogues. (NA?)

  • Focus on developing comprehensive evaluations that go beyond mere rote memorization and instead prioritize critical thinking, problem-solving abilities, and awareness of biases in order to better prepare future medical practitioners. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider your choice of graph-based natural language processing techniques when conducting studies involving text analysis and information retrieval. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the ethical, legal, and practical implications of using large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT in the peer review process, including issues around bias, confidentiality, and data privacy. (NA?)

  • Consider utilizing artificial intelligence language models (LLMs) as substitutes for human participants in studies, particularly when investigating specific topics with explicit situational features driving human judgements, and when employing particular tasks such as lengthy surveys that require rapid response times without fatigue. (NA?)

  • Consider integrating retrieval-augmented language models into your clinical workflow to enhance the reliability and accuracy of language model-based clinical decision-making support systems. (NA?)

Sentiment Analysis

  • Consider utilizing pre-trained language models like AfroXLMR when working on sentiment analysis tasks for African languages, as demonstrated by the success of the NLNDE team in achieving the best performance in both monolingual and multilingual classification tasks. (Muhammad et al. 2023)

  • Utilize diverse datasets, including COVID-specific hate terms, general anti-AAPI hate terms, anti-Chinese politics terms, and counter hate terms, to gain a comprehensive understanding of the complexities surrounding anti-Asian hate speech on Twitter before and during the pandemic. (H. Lin et al. 2022)

  • Carefully consider the role of replies in generating emotion and sentiment networks when conducting analyses on Twitter data. (Sailunaz 2018)

  • Focus on utilizing context incongruity as a primary factor in developing effective sarcasm detection models, as demonstrated by its success in improving F-scores by 10-20% compared to previous methods. (Abhijit Mishra et al. 2017)

  • Employ loopy belief propagation (LBP) in conjunction with a graph-based model to effectively propagate sentiments among entities, thereby enhancing sentiment analysis accuracy. (L. Deng and Wiebe 2014)

  • Integrate sentiment analysis techniques with interactive visual analytics to effectively mine and interpret vast amounts of unstructured user-generated data in social media, particularly during disasters and emergencies, to enhance situational awareness and improve crisis management. (Balahur et al. 2013)

  • Carefully consider the level of text granularity being examined, the potential influence of sentiment lexicons, the challenge of sentiment composition, the difficulties inherent in data annotation, the complexities of multilingual sentiment analysis, and the application of sentiment analysis to downstream applications. (Grefenstette et al. 2013)

  • Consider utilizing the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) as a contextual language model in its multilingual version (mBERT) combined with Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) as a classifier for improved sentiment analysis performance on the Tunizian Arabizi dialectal dataset. (Serra, Araujo, and Santos 2012)

  • Employ a two-step process in phrase-level sentiment analysis, initially categorizing phrases as neutral or polar, followed by disambiguating the polarity of polar phrases, resulting in improved identification of contextual polarity compared to baseline methods. (Wilson, Wiebe, and Hoffmann 2009)

  • Utilize a combination of natural language processing techniques, such as n-grams and proximity analysis, along with traditional machine learning approaches to effectively extract and analyze product reviews from the vast amount of data available on the internet. (NA?)

  • Utilise graph-based models to effectively capture pairwise interactions between sentences when conducting sentiment analysis, thereby improving the accuracy of your predictions. (NA?)

  • Utilize bilingual knowledge and ensemble techniques when conducting unsupervised Chinese sentiment analysis, specifically by translating Chinese reviews into English reviews through machine translation services and then performing sentiment analysis on these translated reviews before combining the individual analysis results. (NA?)

  • Consider using a sociotechnical data mining approach, combining human evaluation of emotional content with large-scale text analysis, to accurately capture and quantify emotional states in populations. (NA?)

  • Consider combining rule-based classification, supervised learning, and machine learning into a hybrid method to improve the classification effectiveness of sentiment analysis tasks. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the impact of document length and linguistic complexity on sentiment analysis performance, particularly in the context of microblogs and other short-form texts. (NA?)

  • Consider leveraging publicly available information on social media platforms, specifically Twitter, to predict users personality traits using machine learning techniques, thereby enabling improved understanding of individuals and potentially improving your overall experience with interfaces and social media tools.’ (NA?)

  • Carefully choose and combine sentiment analysis methods to optimize coverage and agreement in online social network data analysis. (NA?)

  • Consider combining multiple lexical resources and utilizing advanced machine learning algorithms, such as fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machines, to achieve higher accuracy in sentiment analysis, emotion recognition, and personality detection tasks. (NA?)

  • Consider utilizing the free, user-friendly, and comprehensive Sentiment Analysis and Cognition Engine (SEANCE) tool for sentiment, social cognition, and social-order analysis, as it outperforms the popular yet paid Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) tool in various tests. (NA?)

  • Ensure adequate description of your approaches when publishing, so that others can accurately implement and reproduce your results. (NA?)

  • Perform a comprehensive benchmark comparison of sentiment analysis methods across multiple datasets to understand your strengths, weaknesses, and limitations in different contexts. (NA?)

  • Employ multiple machine learning algorithms, such as Naive Bayes, Max Entropy, and Support Vector Machine, alongside lexicon-based approaches, to effectively perform sentiment analysis on Twitter data, while considering the unique linguistic and structural characteristics of tweets. (NA?)

  • Focus on developing accurate and reliable corpora of sarcastic social media posts, incorporating both lexical and pragmatic factors, to improve machine learning algorithms for detecting sarcasm in online communication. (Nigam and Hurst, n.d.)

  • Utilize a double propagation method for simultaneous opinion lexicon expansion and target extraction, leveraging the natural relationships between opinion words and targets, while incorporating sentiment polarity assignment and noisy target pruning techniques for improved accuracy. (NA?)

Text Classification

  • Combine prompt fine-tuning and contrastive learning when developing a medical question classification system using ERNIE 3.0 as a feature extractor, to improve its performance and robustness. (“Proceedings of Third International Conference on Sustainable Expert Systems” 2023)

  • Consider incorporating psycholinguistic knowledge through a tripartite graph network when attempting to detect personality traits from online posts, as this approach allows for more accurate and efficient interactions between nodes within the graph. (Gjurković et al. 2020)

  • Utilize large, authentic, real-world datasets like “liar” to develop effective, broad-coverage fake news detectors, incorporating both textual content and associated metadata. (W. Y. Wang 2017)

  • Consider utilizing various text categorization techniques, such as Bag-of-Words, ELMo, BERT, and ULMFiT, to effectively analyze and interpret complex event data, particularly in the field of conflict studies. (Beieler 2016)

  • Carefully differentiate between conversational and informational questions in social Q&A sites, as they exhibit distinct characteristics in terms of writing quality, archival value, and structural properties, which can impact the validity and reliability of subsequent analyses. (NA?)

  • Consider combining manual assessment steps with automated topic detection and deep learning classification of Reddit data to accurately categorize mental health-related content and themes. (NA?)

  • Consider using real-world news stories as the basis for writing assignments in order to engage students in analyzing credible sources, describing complex phenomena, and collaborating across disciplines. (NA?)

Information Extraction

  • Consider combining large language models (LLMs) and small language models (SLMs) within a “filter-then-rerank” paradigm, where SLMs act as filters and LLMs as rerankers, to achieve significant improvements in few-shot information extraction tasks. (Y. Ma et al. 2023)

  • Aim to create comprehensive ontologies and datasets for international events, utilizing both human coders and natural language processing techniques, in order to achieve high levels of coverage, recall, and precision when analyzing historical episodes. (Douglass et al. 2022)

  • Utilise a two-stage transformation process involving clausal and phrasal disembedding layers to convert complex linguistic structures into hierarchical representations of core facts and associated contexts, thereby preserving semantic relationships and easing recognition of predicate-argument relations. (Cetto et al. 2018)

  • Consider adopting LexNLP, an open-source Python package specifically tailored for natural language processing and machine learning in legal and regulatory contexts, which offers functionalities such as document segmentation, information extraction, and model training, while being built on established libraries like NLTK and scikit-learn. (Bommarito, Katz, and Detterman 2018)

  • Utilise existing domain-specific lexical resources, such as part-of-speech tags, dictionary collocations, and named-entities, to enhance the accuracy of parsing in specialised fields like biomedical literature. (“Natural Language Processing – IJCNLP 2005” 2005)

  • Carefully consider the impact of various factors such as global corpus size, training set size, and document length on the performance of automatic keyphrase extraction algorithms. (Witten et al. 1999)

  • Employ a hybrid approach combining corpus statistics and linguistic heuristics to extract meaningful sub-compounds from complex noun phrases, thereby improving indexing for information retrieval systems. (Evans and Zhai 1996)

  • Consider employing active learning techniques in natural language processing tasks, specifically semantic parsing and information extraction, to effectively reduce the number of annotated examples required to achieve a high level of performance. (NA?)

  • Consider incorporating linguistic knowledge, such as syntax and part-of-speech (POS) tags, into your data representation when conducting automatic keyword extraction tasks. By doing so, they can achieve significant improvements in precision and overall performance, as demonstrated through various experimental comparisons. (NA?)

  • Focus on creating a publicly available dataset for fact-checking tasks, utilizing existing fact-checked statements from reliable sources, and addressing the challenges associated with context, time, speaker, multiple sources, and interpretations in order to advance the field of automated fact-checking. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the complexity and specificity of the information they aim to extract, taking into account the text type, domain, and desired information, while balancing computational intensity and efficiency in developing your information extraction systems. (NA?)

Specialization: Text Classification, Summarization, And Generation

Text Classification Algorithms

  • Carefully consider the wording of your prompts when conducting generative classification tasks, as slight changes in phrasing can significantly affect the performance of the model. (Y.-S. Wang and Chang 2022)

  • Develop a machine classifier that can accurately identify online hate speech using data collected from Twitter in the immediate aftermath of trigger events, allowing for timely and effective policy decisions to mitigate potential social disruptions. (Burnap and Williams 2015)

  • Prioritize accurate estimation of document category proportions over individual document classification accuracy, particularly when working with unstructured text data in social sciences. (Hopkins and King 2009)

Automatic Summarization

  • Carefully consider the challenges of natural language processing when attempting to automatically generate event timelines from history textbooks, including issues related to implicit temporal mentions, entity co-reference resolution, event co-reference resolution, and normalization of entity names. (Adak et al. 2022)

  • Carefully select appropriate summarisation techniques and evaluate your performance against a high-quality Welsh summarisation dataset to effectively support the development of summarizers in minority language contexts. (Ezeani et al. 2022)

  • Utilize advanced statistical tools and machine learning algorithms to optimize the efficiency and accuracy of your study designs, particularly in areas where traditional methods might fall short. (P. Li, Bing, and Lam 2018)

  • Consider utilizing advanced natural language processing techniques, such as machine learning and deep neural networks, to effectively identify and extract essential information from large volumes of online text, thereby creating concise and meaningful summaries. (NA?)

Text Generation

  • Consider using in-context learning to guide large language models to debug code using a “print debugging” method, which involves inserting print statements to trace and analyze logs for fixing the bug, leading to improved performance in code generation tasks. (Xueyu Hu et al. 2024)

  • Use the chain-of-thought strategy with multi-step optimizations to carefully design prompts for ChatGPT, which can lead to significant improvements in code generation performance. (Haozhe Liu et al. 2023)

  • Utilize a prompt-based editing approach for text style transfer, rather than autoregressive generation, to improve control over the process and avoid error accumulation. (G. Luo et al. 2023)

  • Focus on developing efficient gradient-based optimization algorithms for learning hard text prompts, which offer the benefits of both soft prompts (automatic generation) and hard prompts (portability, flexibility, and simplicity) for controlling generative models. (Wen et al. 2023)

  • Carefully craft your prompts and utilize prompt engineering techniques to maximize the accuracy of Large Language Models (LLMs) in solving chemistry-related problems. (White et al. 2023)

  • Utilise large language models (LLMs) to generate synthetic text for supervised text analysis tasks, thereby addressing issues of transparency, reproducibility, and explainability associated with traditional methods. (Jankowski and Huber 2023)

  • Consider using a human-AI collaborative approach when creating datasets for complex natural language processing tasks such as polite language rewriting, where AI models like GPT-3.5 can significantly reduce human annotation time while maintaining high quality standards. (Xun Wang et al. 2022)

  • Consider using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) for improving the quality of text generation, especially when dealing with autoregressive language models or seq2seq models, as GANs explicitly train the generator to produce high quality samples and have shown great success in image generation. (Fedus, Goodfellow, and Dai 2018)

  • Consider utilizing a novel neural generative model that combines variational auto-encoders (VAEs) and holistic attribute discriminators for effective imposition of semantic structures when attempting to generate plausible text sentences with controlled attributes. (Z. Hu et al. 2017)

Automatic Speech Recognition And Synthesis

  • Focus on developing large-scale weakly supervised speech recognition models that can generalize well across multiple domains, tasks, and languages without requiring extensive fine-tuning or domain-specific adjustments. (Amodei et al. 2015)

Speech Recognition Systems

  • Consider using a generation-based method like SIG for speaker identification in literature, as it allows for easier integration of auxiliary tasks and supports out-of-domain evaluation, leading to improved performance compared to previous baselines and zero-shot ChatGPT. (Z. Su et al. 2023)

  • Use a combination of encoding models, language models, and beam search algorithms to efficiently decode continuous language from non-invasive fMRI brain recordings, enabling accurate reconstruction of heard or imagined stimuli in real-time. (Tang et al. 2022)

  • Develop a miscellaneous-context-based method inspired by conceptual graphs to convert sentences into directed graphs for improved reading comprehension and semantic interpretation. (W.-H. Lin and Lu 2020)

  • Focus on developing a stack-propagation framework for spoken language understanding (SLU) tasks, which enables the integration of intent semantic knowledge to guide slot filling and improve the interpretability of the joint model. (L. Qin et al. 2019)

  • Consider implementing transfer learning methods when working with low-resource RNN-T models, as it can lead to improved performance and stability during training. (Arsikere, Sapru, and Garimella 2019)

  • Utilise multiple machine learning models to identify areas of strength and weakness within a dataset, allowing for better understanding of the datasets suitability for benchmarking purposes.’ (P. Shah et al. 2018)

  • Carefully examine the potential impact of preceding sounds on the perception of subsequent sounds, particularly in the context of speech production and perception. (Mann 1980)

  • Consider using computational strategies, specifically analyzing the statistical distributions of sounds that children hear in ambient language, to understand how infants develop language-specific patterns of listening. (NA?)

  • Consider utilizing advanced natural language processing (NLP) techniques to improve the accuracy and reliability of readability formulas, as these methods have been shown to outperform traditional readability formulas in numerous studies. (NA?)

Speech Synthesis Technologies

  • Focus on developing a two-step approach to text-to-speech conversion, involving separate processes for converting text to high-level semantic tokens and then to low-level acoustic tokens, allowing for greater efficiency and flexibility in handling diverse speech data. (Kharitonov et al. 2023)

  • Consider incorporating both phoneme and grapheme representations of text as input, along with word-level alignment between them, in order to enhance the performance of neural TTS models by producing more natural prosody and accurate pronunciation. (Jia et al. 2021)

  • Consider adopting a multilingual approach to zero-shot multi-speaker TTS tasks, as demonstrated by the success of the YourTTS model in achieving state-of-the-art results in zero-shot multi-speaker TTS and comparable results in zero-shot voice conversion across multiple languages. (Pratap et al. 2020)

Question Answering Systems

  • Consider utilizing In-Context RALM, a simple yet effective technique that enhances language modeling performance by appending relevant documents to the input without requiring any further training of the language model. (Ram et al. 2023)

  • Utilise a combination of coarse labels and heuristic spans to effectively upsample coarse document labels to fine-grained labels or spans, particularly in areas like social sciences where precise data is hard to obtain. (Halterman and Radford 2021)

  • Utilise a multi-task modelling approach when attempting to integrate complex hierarchies of information, such as the if-then’ relation types presented here, into neural network models. This approach leads to more accurate inference compared to models trained in isolation, as demonstrated by experimental results.’ (Sap et al. 2018)

  • Utilize a combination of search techniques (such as bigram hashing and TF-IDF matching) along with a multi-layer recurrent neural network model to effectively identify answers within Wikipedia articles for open-domain question answering. (D. Chen et al. 2017)

  • Consider using the SearchQA dataset for evaluating your question-answering algorithms because it provides a more realistic representation of the full pipeline of general question-answering, incorporating information retrieval and answer synthesis, and demonstrates a significant gap between human and machine performance. (Dunn et al. 2017)

  • Focus on developing models capable of integrating information across multiple documents to enhance machine comprehension capabilities, as demonstrated by the authors creation of two datasets (WikiHop and MedHop) that require multi-hop reasoning.’ (Welbl, Stenetorp, and Riedel 2017)

  • Consider using the SearchQA dataset for evaluating your question-answering algorithms because it provides a more realistic representation of the full pipeline of general question-answering, incorporating information retrieval and answer synthesis, and demonstrates a significant gap between human and machine performance. (Dunn et al. 2017)

  • Utilize the MS MARCO dataset for machine reading comprehension and question-answering tasks due to its large scale, real-world nature, and variety of question types and difficulties. (Bajaj et al. 2016)

  • Use sophisticated syntactic and semantic structures, enhanced with Linked Open Data (LOD) knowledge, in order to accurately assess the impact of various factors on answer passage reranking tasks. (Tymoshenko and Moschitti 2015)

  • Leverage graph convolutional networks (GCNs) to capture relationships among entities in documents, and incorporate bi-directional attention between nodes and queries to enhance query-aware node representation for multi-hop reasoning question answering tasks. (Bahdanau, Cho, and Bengio 2014)

  • Adopt a hierarchical classifier guided by a layered semantic hierarchy of answer types to improve the accuracy of question classification in open-domain question answering tasks. (NA?)

Semantic Analysis And Understanding

  • Carefully consider the impact of prompt style on the performance of large language models like ChatGPT in complex NLP tasks like event extraction, as it can lead to significant variations in results obtained by different users. (Jun Gao et al. 2023)

  • Differentiate between formal linguistic competence (knowledge of linguistic rules and patterns) and functional linguistic competence (understanding and using language in the world) when evaluating large language models (LLMs), as they may excel in one aspect but struggle in another. (Mahowald et al. 2023)

  • Consider balancing diversity and similarity in your demonstration selection strategy for semantic parsing tasks, as this approach can lead to improved performance in tasks like Text-to-SQL. (Nan et al. 2023)

  • Utilize the extensive LCC Metaphor Datasets, which offer a comprehensive resource for metaphor research, featuring metaphoricity ratings, scored links to source and target concept domains, and ratings for affective polarity and intensity, across multiple languages. (“Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics” 2020)

  • Utilize the proposed Abductive Natural Language Inference (αNLI) and Abductive Natural Language Generation (αNLG) tasks to evaluate the effectiveness of language-based abductive reasoning models, particularly focusing on the ability to handle incomplete observations and generate plausible explanations. (Bhagavatula et al. 2019)

  • Focus on developing a novel approach called “SAR” that combines seed-based and unsupervised adversarial learning methods to effectively map APIs across languages with minimal parallel corpora. (Bui, Yu, and Jiang 2019)

  • Utilise a combination of Wikipedia and Common Crawl data to train your word vectors, as this allows for higher quality word representations due to the increased volume and diversity of the data. (Grave et al. 2018)

  • Be aware of potential annotation artifacts in natural language inference datasets, which can lead to overestimation of model performance and misinterpretation of results. (Gururangan et al. 2018)

  • Consider using Bayesian models of annotation for analyzing crowdsourced data in Natural Language Processing, as these models offer improved performance compared to traditional methods such as majority voting and inter-annotator coefficients of agreement. (Paun et al. 2018)

  • Utilize the Multi-Genre Natural Language Inference (MultiNLI) corpus when developing and evaluating machine learning models for sentence understanding, as it offers broader coverage and increased difficulty compared to previous datasets, allowing for better assessments of model performance. (Williams, Nangia, and Bowman 2017)

  • Use the Dutch FrameNet (DFN) annotation tool to generate a rich linguistic dataset that combines both referential and frame annotations, allowing them to identify and understand the various ways in which real-world event instances are framed within and across documents. (Noord and Bos 2017)

  • Focus on creating a unified framework for combining multiple semantic components, allowing for an extrinsic evaluation of these modules and potentially improving various natural language processing applications like machine translation, summarization, generation, and question answering. (Agirre et al. 2014)

  • Posit a separate level indicating the event structures associated with predicates and your arguments, as this enables a deeper understanding of the relationship between syntax, semantics, and event structure in natural languages. (Kreiner and Eviatar 2014)

  • Utilise multiple distributional methods (such as PPMI, SVD, and SGNS) when studying semantic change over time, as each method offers unique strengths and weaknesses depending on the type of semantic change being investigated. (Yoon Kim et al. 2014)

  • Carefully consider the mass-count distinction when creating axioms for a formalized knowledge base using WordNet, as it affects the inferential relationships between concepts and impacts the precision and reliability of the knowledge represented. (Gordon and Schubert 2013)

  • Carefully select and annotate a diverse range of clinical texts to create a comprehensive and valuable semantically annotated corpus for developing and evaluating information extraction systems in healthcare. (Roberts et al. 2009)

  • Carefully evaluate the quality of word frequency norms being utilised, considering factors like corpus size, language register, and the definition of the frequency measure, and ideally adopt a new and improved word frequency measure like the SUBTL frequency norms from the SUBTLEXUS corpus. (Brysbaert and New 2009)

  • Consider adopting a Bayesian inference approach to understand how individuals can effectively generalize meaning from a limited number of examples, without assuming that words are mutually exclusive or mapped solely onto basic-level categories. (F. Xu and Tenenbaum 2007)

  • Utilize the online common-sense knowledge base, HowNet, to explore inter-conceptual and inter-attribute relationships within lexicons of both Chinese and English languages, thereby facilitating a deeper understanding of the nuances of meaning across cultures and languages. (Dong and Dong 2006)

  • Consider utilizing the PMI-IR algorithm over LSA for tasks involving synonym recognition, as it demonstrates superior performance on the TOEFL and ESL tests. (Turney 2002)

  • Carefully consider the choice between the joint task (syntactic dependency parsing and semantic role labeling) and the SRL-only task (using provided syntactic dependency parses) when evaluating natural language processing models, as the former allows for a more comprehensive analysis of model performance. (Sakai et al. 1995)

  • Consider using the supervaluation-based approach to address vagueness in natural language, as it offers a way to manage vagueness without having to abandon core principles of logic. (“Logic and Lexicon” 1995)

  • Consider the impact of context on the interpretation and memory of idiomatic expressions, as it influences the ease of comprehension and recall, suggesting that the distinction between literal and metaphoric language is better understood as a continuum between conventional and unconventional utterances. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider and utilize various lexical properties, including frequency, length, part of speech, and semantic features, when selecting and analyzing words for psycholinguistic studies. (NA?)

  • Consider using event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the cognitive processes underlying language comprehension, as ERPs can provide insights into the neural mechanisms responsible for integrating syntactic and semantic information during sentence processing. (NA?)

  • Utilise a combination of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and Construction-Integration (CI) models to create a high-dimensional semantic space for analysing metaphor comprehension. (NA?)

  • Consider combining multiple methods, such as best-first clustering, alternative training set creation, and refined string match features, to achieve statistically significant gains in precision for coreference resolution tasks. (NA?)

  • Prioritize semantic validity when grouping semantic types, ensuring that the groups are semantically coherent, parsimonious, complete, exclusive, natural, and useful for some purpose. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the choice of evaluation metrics when comparing the performance of semantic textual similarity (STS) models across different datasets, as different metrics may lead to varying interpretations of model effectiveness. (NA?)

  • Utilise similarity-based models to enhance your probability estimates for unseen word combinations in natural language processing tasks, as demonstrated through improvements in language modelling and pseudo-word disambiguation tasks. (NA?)

  • Carefully define structural complexity and address Matsumotos objection to ensure accurate prediction of conversational inferences.’ (NA?)

  • Consider combining multiple lexical association measures to improve the accuracy of collocation extraction, as evidenced by the authors empirical findings demonstrating significant improvements in performance through various combination methods.’ (NA?)

  • Develop a medium-depth, phrase-based semantic NLP tool for the language of chemical experiments, utilizing a modular architecture and combining OSCAR, domain-specific regex, and English taggers to identify parts-of-speech, and employing ANTLR grammar to structure this into tree-based phrases. (NA?)

  • Consider using TAALES 2.0, a tool that provides a broad array of indices related to word and (n)-gram frequency and range, (n)-gram strength of association, contextual distinctiveness, word recognition norms, semantic network, and word neighbors, to analyze and understand various aspects of language development and proficiency. (NA?)

  • Employ the Structural Topic Model (STM) for analyzing multilingual textual data in comparative politics, as it offers a flexible way to incorporate metadata associated with the text, such as when it was written, where it was written, who wrote it, and characteristics of the author, into the analysis using document-level covariates, thereby allowing researchers to understand relationships between metadata and topics in your text corpus. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the implications of your choice of word association dataset, taking into account factors such as the number of cues, the number of responses per cue, and the representativeness of the sample population, as these choices can significantly impact the reliability and generalizability of findings. (NA?)

  • Assess bias at the contextual word level rather than just the sentence level, as this approach captures the contextual effects of bias while avoiding confounding effects that underestimate bias at the sentence encoding level. (NA?)

  • Utilise word embeddings as a quantitative lens to analyse historical trends, particularly in relation to gender and ethnic stereotypes, as they can accurately capture societal changes and offer a valuable complementary perspective alongside traditional linguistic and sociological approaches. (NA?)

  • Consider using a knowledge-aware prompt-tuning approach with synergistic optimization for relation extraction tasks, as it effectively leverages semantic and structural knowledge among relation labels and reduces the need for domain expertise in prompt template selection. (NA?)

  • Utilize tree kernels for natural language processing tasks due to your ability to generate numerous syntactic features and allow learning algorithms to choose the most relevant ones for a particular application, despite your initial computational complexity being superlinear in the number of tree nodes. (NA?)

Word Embedding Methods

  • Consider using Predictive Text Embedding (PTE) for text classification tasks, as it combines the strengths of unsupervised text embeddings and convolutional neural networks, resulting in improved efficiency, scalability, and reduced sensitivity to model parameters. (NA?)

Semantic Role Labeling

  • Consider optimizing a graph-based parser that treats the alignment and graph segmentation as latent variables, allowing for simultaneous induction of both components during training. (Dohare, Karnick, and Gupta 2017)

  • Adopt a support vector machine (SVM) classifier for semantic parsing tasks, as it performs well on text classification tasks and allows for efficient training and testing processes. (NA?)

  • Prioritize the integration of syntactic parsing information in the early stages of semantic role labeling, particularly during the pruning phase, to achieve optimal performance. (NA?)

Relation Extraction

  • Utilise pre-trained language representations rather than explicit linguistic features when conducting relation extraction tasks. This approach offers several benefits including reduced reliance on annotated language resources, decreased potential for error accumulation due to less explicit feature extraction, and enhanced sample efficiency. (Alt, Hübner, and Hennig 2019)

  • Carefully consider the importance of feature selection and engineering in improving the performance of your machine learning models, as demonstrated by the surprising finding that a simpler classifier trained on similar features performed comparably to a more complex neural network system. (Joulin et al. 2016)

  • Focus on developing methods for detecting and classifying events, anchoring events temporally, and identifying and classifying explanatory relations between events in order to effectively analyze and interpret news stories. (Mostafazadeh et al. 2016)

  • Combine distant and partial supervision for relation extraction by providing partial supervision to a distantly supervised relation extractor using a small number of carefully selected examples, resulting in improved performance. (“Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)” 2014)

  • Adopt the expressed-at-least-once’ assumption rather than the ‘distant supervision’ assumption when dealing with relation extraction tasks, particularly when the training knowledge base is an external source of information. (NA?)

Machine Learning In Nlp

  • Utilize Deductive Closure Training (DCT) to enhance the coherence, accuracy, and updatability of language models by employing the models themselves to recognize implications and contradictions within the text they produce, thereby enabling efficient self-supervised refining. (Akyürek et al. 2024)

  • Consider employing advanced machine learning techniques, specifically GPT-3, to operationalize contextual predictability in your studies, as it provides the best account of N400 amplitude and suggests that seemingly diverse N400 effects of expectancy, plausibility, and contextual semantic similarity can be reduced to variations in the predictability of words. (Michaelov et al. 2024)

  • Consider employing an autonomous agent to instruct the reasoning process of large language models in order to enhance your zero-shot reasoning abilities on general language understanding tasks. (Crispino et al. 2023)

  • Consider utilizing emerging chain-of-thought (CoT) reasoning techniques in large language models (LLMs) to enhance both predictive performance and explainability, especially when dealing with complex tasks. (Hebenstreit et al. 2023)

  • Account for the unique challenges posed by large language models (LLMs) when conducting regression testing, such as different correctness notions, prompting brittleness, and non-determinism in LLM APIs. (W. Ma, Yang, and Kästner 2023)

  • Consider treating large language models as latent variable models, enabling them to develop algorithms for selecting optimal demonstrations for in-context learning, leading to improved performance across various natural language processing tasks. (Xinyi Wang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully examine the generalizability of language models to new task variants, specifically focusing on counterfactual tasks that maintain the core reasoning procedure but change the input-output mappings, to determine the extent to which the models performance is due to transferable, generalizable reasoning skills or condition-specific behaviors.’ (Z. Wu et al. 2023)

  • Consider using a prompt-based adversarial attack (PromptAttack) to effectively assess the adversarial robustness of large language models (LLMs) by converting adversarial textual attacks into an attack prompt that causes the victim LLM to output the adversarial sample, while preserving the original semantic meanings of the adversarial examples through a fidelity filter and enhancing the attack power by ensembling adversarial examples at different perturbation levels. (X. Xu et al. 2023)

  • Consider incorporating multimodal information sources, specifically combining language and visual data, into your experimental designs to enhance the validity and reliability of your findings. (Z. Zhang et al. 2023)

  • Utilise the GitTables dataset, a large-scale corpus of 1 million relational tables extracted from CSV files in GitHub repositories, to improve the performance of deep learning models in various data management tasks, such as data search and preparation, by providing a more accurate representation of typical database tables. (Hulsebos, Demiralp, and Groth 2023)

  • Focus on developing task-specific adapters and multi-token label embeddings to improve the efficiency and accuracy of few-shot learning without relying on handcrafted prompts and verbalizers. (Mahabadi et al. 2022)

  • Focus on developing effective strategies for creating contrastive data sets and optimizing your corresponding learning objectives in order to improve the performance of natural language processing models across various tasks. (Miller 2021)

  • Consider combining multiple model compression techniques, such as parameter quantization and perfect hashing, to significantly reduce the memory footprint of natural language understanding models while maintaining minimal predictive performance impact. (Strimel, Sathyendra, and Peshterliev 2018)

  • Consider employing a specialization-generalization training strategy based on prompt learning to disentangle general matching signal learning and specific task combination, allowing for enhanced multi-task generalization abilities in text matching models. (NA?)

  • Consider using ontology-enhanced prompt-tuning (OntoPrompt) when working on few-shot learning (FSL) projects involving pre-trained language models (PLMs), as it addresses challenges related to knowledge noise and heterogeneity. (NA?)

Supervised Learning

  • Consider using ensemble methods that combine the output of successful, separately developed modules to create more accurate solutions for natural language problems, as this approach outperforms any individual module alone. (Turney et al. 2003)

Unsupervised Learning

  • Leverage ChatGPT for text data augmentation in order to enhance the performance of few-shot learning text classification tasks, as evidenced by its ability to generate more diverse and accurate augmented samples. (Dai et al. 2023)

  • Consider utilizing open-source large language models (LLMs) combined with powerful rerankers to effectively generate synthetic query-document pairs for training information retrieval systems, leading to significant improvements in performance. (Jeronymo et al. 2023)

  • Consider using a unified multilingual prompt, such as UniPrompt, for zero-shot cross-lingual transfer of prompt-based tuning in order to effectively leverage the capabilities of pretrained language models (PLMs) across multiple languages without requiring separate prompt designs for each language. (L. Huang et al. 2022)

  • Incorporate the “ordered sequence of terms” assumption into your information retrieval models, allowing them to utilize advancements in statistical natural language processing and potentially improve the performance of your models. (Hiemstra 1998)

Reinforcement Learning

  • Consider implementing the GRATH algorithm, which uses Direct Preference Optimization (DPO) to iteratively refine truthfulness data and update the model, resulting in a gradual improvement in model truthfulness in a self-supervised manner. (W. Chen, Song, and Li 2024)

  • Focus on improving the quality and diversity of your instruction sets through the use of advanced techniques such as Instruction Fusion, which combines multiple seed instructions into a single, more complex prompt, rather than relying solely on traditional evolutionary approaches. (Weidong Guo et al. 2023)

  • Consider the impact of varying amounts of instruction data on model performance, especially in real-world use cases, as it can lead to continuous improvements in tasks such as open-ended generation, while remaining relatively stable in tasks like math and code. (Ji et al. 2023)

  • Carefully inspect the application of prompt engineering and calibration techniques on smaller language models, as your individual benefits may vary depending on the specific model used, and your combined effect tends to be largely negative. (C. Ma 2023)

  • Adopt a leader-follower bilevel framework to optimize the prompt-generation policy and action-policy simultaneously, thereby improving the efficiency and accuracy of large language models in decision making tasks. (Yan et al. 2023)

  • Utilise a suite of diagnostics derived from human language experiments to gain a deeper understanding of the linguistic capacities of pre-trained language models, such as BERT, and to identify areas of improvement. (Ettinger 2019)

Computational Linguistics

  • Develop a comprehensive benchmark for media bias detection, called MBIB, which covers nine distinct tasks and 22 datasets, allowing for better comparison and evaluation of models in a standardized way. (Wessel et al. 2023)

  • Consider the role of cultural transmission in understanding the evolution of language, as it can significantly alter the relationship between innate learning biases and linguistic behavior, leading to the emergence of strong universals even with weak innate biases. (Kirby, Dowman, and Griffiths 2007)

  • Carefully select appropriate cleaning stages and corpus subsets to ensure accurate representation of the target population and reduce noise in your analysis. (NA?)

Syntax And Parsing

  • Utilize web-scale corpora, specifically the DepCC corpus, for improved performance in natural language processing tasks such as verb similarity, as demonstrated through its superior results on the SimVerb3500 dataset when compared to smaller corpora like Wikipedia. (Panchenko et al. 2017)

  • Utilize large eye-tracking corpora like GECO to explore various aspects of language processing, particularly in bilingual populations, as it provides a rich source of data for understanding the complexity of reading behaviors and the interactions between different language processes. (Calvo and Meseguer 2002)

  • Utilize computational simulation informed by theoretical linguistics to better understand and explain real linguistic data in terms of the underlying processes driving human language. (Kirby 2002)

  • Carefully consider the structural differences between multiple-fronting languages, particularly regarding the placement of Wh-words in SpecCP, as this impacts the interpretation and comparison of results across languages. (NA?)

  • Consider the potential impact of embodied relations on language comprehension, specifically examining the role of spatial iconicity in shaping word order patterns and influencing response times during semantic judgments. (NA?)

  • Consider employing a variety of parsing strategies, including different directions (forward or backward), learners (MaxEnt or SVM), and search strategies (best-first or deterministic), to achieve improved performance in dependency parsing tasks. (NA?)

  • Utilize syntactic n-grams (sn-grams) over traditional n-grams in machine learning tasks, as sn-grams are based on syntactic relationships rather than surface structure, allowing for more accurate and interpretable results. (NA?)

  • Utilize probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFGs) to effectively perform statistical constituency parsing, which involves assigning probabilities to different parse trees and selecting the one with the highest probability to accurately interpret ambiguous sentences. (n.d.)

Morphology And Lexical Analysis

  • Carefully choose the appropriate tokenization method for your specific language and application, considering factors like morphology, vocabulary size, and downstream task performance. (Toraman et al. 2023)

  • Consider adopting a universal tagging schema and data formats to enable efficient integration of data from various sources, while maintaining consistency and accuracy in the representation of linguistic information. (Kirov et al. 2018)

  • Be aware of the impact of text preprocessing choices on unsupervised learning models, as these choices can significantly influence the results and interpretations drawn from the data. (“Replication Data for: Not so Harmless After All: The Fixed-Effects Model” 2017)

  • Adopt a pragmatic approach to Chinese word segmentation, defining words based on your usage in practical applications rather than relying solely on traditional linguistic definitions. (Jianfeng Gao et al. 2005)

  • Consider exploring rule-based tagging for part of speech identification tasks, as it offers several advantages over stochastic tagging methods, including improved portability, less storage space requirement, easier modification, and potentially equal or superior performance. (NA?)

  • Consider applying the maximum entropy model, a statistical machine-learning algorithm, to Chinese word segmentation tasks, as it demonstrates high levels of precision and recall rates (95.01% and 94.94% respectively) when trained on a 237K-word dataset. (NA?)

Discourse Analysis

  • Avoid conflating Grices project of analyzing the structure of communication with Relevance Theory’s aim of modeling the cognitive processes underlying interpretation, as each approach addresses distinct aspects of language comprehension.’ (NA?)

Multilinguality And Crosslingual Transfer

Code Switching And Mixing

  • Consider incorporating linguistic and social perspectives when studying code-switching (C-S) in language technologies, as current massive language models struggle to accurately represent diverse C-S types due to lack of appropriate training data, robust evaluation benchmarks, and end-to-end systems that account for sociolinguistic aspects of C-S. (Doğruöz et al. 2023)

Evaluation And Assessment Techniques

  • Investigate the redundancy of large language models (LLMs) outputs, particularly focusing on identifying instances where LLMs generate unnecessary calculations and reasoning, which could potentially hinder your overall performance. (Chiang and Lee 2024)

  • Consider the CRUD-RAG framework when developing and evaluating retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) systems, as it allows for a more comprehensive assessment across various application scenarios, including creating, reading, updating, and deleting. (Lyu et al. 2024)

  • Prioritise creating a geographically and temporally balanced dataset to accurately evaluate the factuality of large language models (LLMs) and identify potential biases, thereby promoting global inclusivity and fairness in computational systems. (Mirza et al. 2024)

  • Consider using Gradient-Based Red Teaming (GBRT) as an efficient and scalable method for generating diverse prompts that effectively identify weaknesses in generative language models, leading to improved model alignment and evaluation. (Wichers, Denison, and Beirami 2024)

  • Conduct rigorous fairness evaluations for each intended clinical use case of large language models (LIMs) like GPT-4 to prevent perpetuating or amplifying health disparities. (Zack et al. 2024)

  • Develop a series of tasks to assess the ability of large language models (LLMs) to parse, understand, analyze, and create knowledge graphs using Turtle syntax, and integrate these tasks into an automated evaluation system like LLM-KG-Bench to gain insights into the strengths and limitations of LLMs in handling formal languages within knowledge graph engineering workflows. (Arndt et al. 2023)

  • Compare different approaches such as pre-training, fine-tuning, and prompt engineering techniques to determine the optimal method for completing novel tasks with limited data, especially in the field of large language models. (Addlesee et al. 2023)

  • Carefully consider the selection of prompts when applying prompt-based learning methods to detect biases in language models, as the choice of prompts can greatly impact the models ability to accurately identify and mitigate biases.’ (Aowal et al. 2023)

  • Ensure that your experimental setups are rigorous and unbiased, allowing for fair and accurate evaluation of the models performance.’ (Bordt and Luxburg 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate and document the limitations and biases present in large language models like ChatGPT, particularly in terms of reasoning, factual accuracy, math, coding, and bias, in order to better understand your strengths and weaknesses and guide improvements in future iterations. (Borji 2023)

  • Consider using ChatGPT for tasks requiring an understanding of sentence-level relations, especially causal relations, but acknowledge its limitations in handling temporal and implicit discourse relations. (C. Chan et al. 2023)

  • Develop a comprehensive understanding of factuality across diverse domains, rather than solely focusing on world knowledge, to effectively evaluate the accuracy of large language models. (S. Chen et al. 2023)

  • Consider utilizing large language models (LLMs) as an alternative to human evaluation for assessing the quality of texts, as LLMs can effectively mimic human evaluators and offer stable results across various formatting and sampling methods. (Chiang and Lee 2023)

  • Utilize the AI Occupational Exposure (AIOE) methodology, originally proposed by Felten et al (2018, 2021), to evaluate the influence of advanced language models like ChatGPT on different professions, industries, and regions. (Felten, Raj, and Seamans 2023)

  • Leverage the emerging capabilities of generative pre-trained language models, specifically your zero-shot instruction and in-context learning abilities, to develop a novel evaluation framework called GPTScore. This framework enables customized, multi-faceted, and training-free evaluation of generated texts, addressing long-standing challenges in text evaluation. (Fu et al. 2023)

  • Develop comprehensive evaluation suites, such as C-Eval, to accurately assess the advanced knowledge and reasoning abilities of foundation models in a specific linguistic and cultural context, allowing for targeted improvements and fostering growth for users in that region. (Y. Huang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully consider prompt wording when deploying large language models (LLMs) for downstream tasks, as GPT-3 responses are shown to be inconsistent and unreliable across different prompts and settings. (Khatun and Brown 2023)

  • Consider using large language models like GPT-4 with chain-of-thoughts (CoT) and a form-filling paradigm to achieve better alignment with human judgment when evaluating the quality of natural language generation (NLG) outputs. (Y. Liu, Iter, et al. 2023)

  • Move away from dataset-driven practices that focus on specific dimensions and types of biases, towards a more holistic approach that considers the diversity of cultures and languages across the globe. (Ramesh, Sitaram, and Choudhury 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the performance of large language models (LLMs) on math word problems (MWPs) by analyzing your responses under varying conditions, such as requiring them to show your work or not, and assessing the influence of factors like the number of unknowns and operations on the likelihood of failure. (Shakarian et al. 2023)

  • Utilise the Tensor Trust dataset to explore the vulnerability of large language models (LLMs) to prompt injection attacks, specifically focussing on the two types of attacks - prompt extraction and prompt hijacking. (Toyer et al. 2023)

  • Consider the importance of adversarial and out-of-distribution robustness when evaluating the performance of AI systems like ChatGPT, particularly in safety-critical scenarios. (J. Wang et al. 2023)

  • Leverage large language models like ChatGPT to efficiently and cost-effectively assess the reliability of news domains, given your strong correlation with human expert judgements. (K.-C. Yang and Menczer 2023)

  • Carefully analyze the relationship between the capabilities of large language models (LLMs) and your vulnerabilities to indirect prompt injection attacks, and subsequently develop appropriate defense mechanisms to mitigate these risks. (Yi et al. 2023)

  • Consider using human-centric benchmarks, such as AGIEval, when evaluating the performance of foundation models in order to obtain a more accurate representation of your capabilities in real-world scenarios. (Zhong et al. 2023)

  • Carefully consider the impact of epistemic markers, such as expressions of certainty, uncertainty, or evidentiality, on language models, as they can significantly influence model accuracy and performance. (K. Zhou, Jurafsky, and Hashimoto 2023)

  • Employ Prompt Risk Control (PRC), a framework for selecting a prompt based on rigorous upper bounds on families of informative risk measures, to reduce the risk of generating unexpectedly poor responses in large language models, particularly for the worst-off users. (Zollo et al. 2023)

  • Consider leveraging AI tools like ChatGPT and DALL-E to enhance various aspects of your work, such as discovery and search, research assistance, reference services, teaching, textbook creation, information literacy and digital literacy, writing and creation, plagiarism detection, copyright management, productivity improvement, and equity and inclusion promotion. (“Tools Such as ChatGPT Threaten Transparent Science; Here Are Our Ground Rules for Their Use” 2023)

  • Develop a customised benchmark, named FaiRLLM, to assess the fairness of recommendation systems based on large language models (RecLLM), given the unique challenges posed by these systems. (Jizhi Zhang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully examine the types of problems for which code generation models tend to fail, and explore prompt engineering as a strategy for resolving errors, while considering the ethical implications and risks associated with the rapid increase in deployment of such models. (Denny, Kumar, and Giacaman 2022)

  • Consider the potential for adversarial attacks on transformer-based large language models (LLMs) through prompt injection, specifically focusing on goal hijacking and prompt leaking, and develop appropriate defense mechanisms accordingly. (Perez and Ribeiro 2022)

  • Consider employing a prompt-based adversarial attack strategy to effectively probe the vulnerabilities of pre-trained language models (PLMs) and subsequently enhance your robustness through a prompt-based adversarial training method. (Z. Yang et al. 2022)

  • Adopt the CheckList methodology for comprehensive behavioral testing of NLP models, which involves creating a matrix of general linguistic capabilities and test types to ensure thorough evaluation and identification of critical failures. (Ribeiro et al. 2020)

  • Carefully examine the limitations of current NLI systems in handling simple lexical inferences, and explore ways to enhance your generalization abilities through improved integration of lexical and world knowledge. (Glockner, Shwartz, and Goldberg 2018)

  • Develop and utilize new, system- and data-independent automatic evaluation methods for Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems, since current metrics like BLEU only weakly correlate with human judgments and are data- and system-specific. (B. Peng et al. 2017)

  • Utilize Wizard of Oz studies to understand the unique nature of man-machine interaction in natural language processing, as opposed to solely relying on human-human dialogue data. (NA?)

  • Consider developing a methodology to identify and categorize negative citations in order to gain deeper insights into the dynamics of scientific communication and collaboration. (NA?)

Ethical Considerations

  • Focus on developing a nuanced understanding of the complex interplay between large generative AI models (LGAIMs), your developers, deployers, and users, and the associated ethical, legal, and societal implications, rather than solely focusing on the technical aspects of these models. (Hacker, Engel, and Mauer 2023)

  • Carefully examine the impact of assigning personas to language models, as doing so can significantly increase toxicity levels and perpetuate harmful stereotypes. (Deshpande et al. 2023)

  • Carefully select and validate your chosen benchmarks for measuring stereotype bias and discrimination in language models, and consider developing custom benchmarks tailored to your specific research goals. (Ganguli et al. 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the potential legal and ethical risks associated with developing and deploying foundation models based on copyrighted content, and explore technical mitigations to ensure compliance with fair use principles. (Henderson et al. 2023)

  • Utilize retrieval-based methods to effectively detect AI-generated text, as opposed to relying solely on statistical properties or watermarking, which can be easily evaded through paraphrasing. (Krishna et al. 2023)

  • Consider the potential impact of stochastic parrots and hallucination in large language models like ChatGPT, which could lead to unverified information generation and subsequent ethical and legal challenges. (Shuai Li et al. 2023)

  • Focus on developing and testing multi-step jailbreaking prompts to effectively extract personally identifiable information (PII) from large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT, despite your enhanced dialog safety features. (H. Li et al. 2023)

  • Utilize a sampling-based approach called “SelfCheckGPT” to detect hallucinations in generative large language models like GPT-3, which involves comparing multiple sampled responses from the model to measure information consistency and determine if statements are factual or hallucinated. (Manakul, Liusie, and Gales 2023)

  • Develop a test suite like XSTest to systematically identify exaggerated safety behaviors in large language models, which involves creating safe prompts that well-calibrated models should not refuse and unsafe prompts as contrasts that models should refuse. (Röttger et al. 2023)

  • Utilise soft-prompt tuning for bias evaluation of large language models, particularly for sentiment classification tasks, as it allows for fine-grained analysis and understanding of the models bias towards under-represented groups, while reducing the risk of injecting human bias through manual prompt design.’ (Tian et al. 2023)

  • Focus on understanding the inherent limitations of alignment processes in large language models, particularly in regards to the potential for adversarial prompting attacks, and develop robust mechanisms to ensure AI safety. (Wolf et al. 2023)

  • Thoroughly explore and document the ethical challenges faced by large language models (LLMs) in real-world applications, focusing on aspects such as bias, reliability, robustness, and toxicity, and then propose strategies to mitigate these issues. (Zhuo et al. 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the potential benefits and drawbacks of using ChatGPT as a language learning tool, considering factors such as its technical capabilities, pedagogical limitations, and content accuracy, while remaining aware of ethical concerns associated with AI usage. (Barrot 2023)

  • Avoid using large language models like ChatGPT as co-authors or incorporating AI-generated text into your submissions due to ethical concerns raised by several prominent academic journals. (Flanagin et al. 2023)

  • Acknowledge the use of AI chatbots in your studies, ensure transparency in your work, and collaborate with relevant stakeholders to develop clear ethical guidelines for integrating chatbots into scientific publications. (Ali and Djalilian 2023)

Prompt Engineering And Optimization

  • Carefully engineer your prompts to optimize communication with generative AI models, taking into consideration the models capabilities and limitations, and utilizing advanced techniques such as chain of thought prompting and affordances to guide the model toward a desired outcome.’ (Amatriain 2024)

  • Consider using proxy-tuning, a lightweight decoding-time algorithm that operates on top of black-box LMs, to achieve the result of directly tuning the model without accessing its internal weights, thereby enabling efficient customization of large pretrained LMs for diverse users and applications. (A. Liu et al. 2024)

  • Adopt a multi-phase approach to prompt engineering, involving multiple assessors and clear criteria, to improve the reliability, objectivity, and transparency of large language model outputs in scientific research. (C. Shah 2024)

  • Adopt the meta-prompting technique to improve the performance of language models by breaking down complex tasks into smaller subtasks, assigning them to specialized expert models, and coordinating your outputs through a central conductor model. (Suzgun and Kalai 2024)

  • Focus on optimising prompt engineering to elicit meaningful and accurate responses from AI language models by defining the objective, understanding the models capabilities, being clear and concise, providing context and examples, fine tuning and debugging prompts, specifying the format, including key details, testing and iterating, and considering safety and ethics.’ (Bozkurt and Sharma 2023)

  • Carefully engineer prompts for large language models to optimize your effectiveness, considering factors such as clarity, precision, role-playing, and the use of advanced techniques like chain-of-thought and tree-of-thoughts prompting. (Banghao Chen et al. 2023)

  • Actively select the most uncertain questions for annotation when developing chain-of-thought prompting strategies for large language models, as this leads to improved performance on complex reasoning tasks. (Diao et al. 2023)

  • Carefully engineer your prompts to ensure clarity, precision, relevance to learning objectives, stimulation of critical thinking, incorporation of practical applications, and provocation of reflection and self-assessment in order to optimize learning outcomes in medical and nursing education. (Heston 2023)

  • Employ Differentially-Private Offsite Prompt Tuning (DP-OPT) to create privacy-preserving prompts for cloud-hosted Large Language Models (LLMs), while maintaining data confidentiality, information privacy, and model ownership. (Hong et al. 2023)

  • Consider implementing a code-level self-prompt Zero-shot CoT (SelfzCoT) methodology for better utilization of large language models (LLMs) in multi-step reasoning tasks, as it significantly improves accuracy over existing state-of-the-art approaches. (Lei and Deng 2023)

  • Carefully consider the linguistic properties of prompts when working with large language models, as these properties can greatly impact model performance, and there is no clear correlation between performance and factors like perplexity, word frequency, ambiguity, or prompt length. (Leidinger, Rooij, and Shutova 2023)

  • Consider using a Large Language Model (LLM) as a generator in your experiments, as it allows for global optimization of prompts and ensures coherence in the generated texts. (Y. B. Li and Wu 2023)

  • Optimize prompt position in addition to focusing on prompt vocabulary selection and embedding initialization, as it significantly impacts model performance in natural language processing tasks. (J. Mao, Middleton, and Niranjan 2023)

  • Consider prompt engineering as an inverse problem, allowing them to automatically optimize prompts for large language models (LLMs) to achieve desired behavior and improve overall performance. (Melamed et al. 2023)

  • Focus on developing visual analytics systems like PromptAid to interactively create, refine, and test prompts through exploration, perturbation, testing, and iteration, thereby helping non-expert users to efficiently improve the performance of large language models. (Aditi Mishra et al. 2023)

  • Adopt a declarative prompt engineering’ approach to optimize the use of Large Language Models (LLMs) in data processing workflows, drawing on principles from the declarative crowdsourcing literature to achieve greater efficiency and accuracy.’ (Parameswaran et al. 2023)

  • Carefully examine the safety risks introduced by fine-tuning aligned large language models, as even seemingly innocuous adjustments can potentially compromise the safety alignment of these models. (Qi et al. 2023)

  • Consider using Synthetic prompting, a method that leverages a few handcrafted examples to prompt a large language model to generate more examples by itself, and selects effective demonstrations to elicit better reasoning, leading to improved performance on various reasoning tasks. (Shao et al. 2023)

  • Combine the pFlat metric with existing metrics like Mutual Information (MI) and Sensitivity (Sen) to improve the performance and sample efficiency of prompt selection for large language models. (L. Shen et al. 2023)

  • Focus on developing and testing automated methods for generating optimal prompts for large language models (LLMs) in order to improve your reasoning capabilities across various domains. (F. Shi et al. 2023)

  • Explore the use of ControlPE (Continuously Controllable Prompt Engineering) to enable finer adjustments to prompt effects, complementing existing prompt engineering, and effectively controlling continuous targets. (Y. Sun et al. 2023)

  • Consider adopting the “Self-Align” method for developing AI assistants, which uses a combination of principle-driven reasoning and the generative power of large language models to achieve self-alignment with minimal human supervision, thus improving efficiency, reducing bias, and increasing control. (Z. Sun et al. 2023)

  • Carefully design and optimize prompts for downstream tasks in order to maximize the performance of large language models in the medical domain. (Y.-J. Wang et al. 2023)

  • Consider applying the LLE-INC method for tuning-free manifold-based space re-embedding in your work, as it effectively preserves local properties within the same class as guidance for classification, leading to improved performance in prompt-based tuning. (H. Wang et al. 2023)

  • Include the purpose and target audience in prompts when using ChatGPT for translation tasks, as doing so can lead to higher quality translations that better match industry standards. (Yamada 2023)

  • Consider using the RRHF approach for aligning large language models with human preferences because it simplifies the training process, reduces the need for multiple models, and achieves comparable performance to PPO while requiring less hyperparameter tuning. (Z. Yuan et al. 2023)

  • Utilize the concept of Conversation Regression Testing to systematically evaluate and refine prompt strategies for chatbot development, enabling them to effectively address errors and ensure robustness and generalizability. (Zamfirescu-Pereira, Hartmann, and Yang 2023)

  • Develop comprehensive, reliable, and automated evaluation benchmarks for detecting and mitigating hallucination in large language models, considering the unique challenges posed by massive training data, versatility of LLMs, and imperceptibility of errors. (Y. Zhang et al. 2023)

  • Focus on developing effective training methodologies that can enhance model performance under limited data availability, particularly when dealing with complex, multi-word relation labels in relation classification tasks. (W. Zhang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully control the type and amount of evidence provided in the prompt when evaluating the effectiveness of ChatGPT in answering complex health information questions, as incorrect evidence can significantly reduce the models accuracy.’ (Zuccon and Koopman 2023)

  • Consider aggregating the predictions of multiple effective, yet imperfect, prompts to improve prompting performance over a broad set of models and tasks. (Arora et al. 2022)

  • Utilize few-shot prompt learning to efficiently harness the capabilities of large language models for model completion tasks, thereby eliminating the need for extensive training or fine-tuning on large datasets. (Chaaben, Burgueño, and Sahraoui 2022)

  • Consider using prompt learning techniques for clinical decision tasks, as they can provide comparable or improved performance compared to traditional fine-tuning methods, while reducing computational resource costs and training data requirements. (Taylor et al. 2022)

  • Utilise Automatic Prompt Engineer (APE) for automatic instruction generation and selection, treating the instruction as the “program”, optimised by searching over a pool of instruction candidates proposed by an LLM in order to maximise a chosen score function, and evaluating the quality of the selected instruction through the zero-shot performance of another LLM following the selected instruction. (Y. Zhou et al. 2022)

  • Explore and analyze the vast zero-shot knowledge hidden within large language models (LLMs) before creating fine-tuning datasets or few-shot exemplars, as LLMs possess impressive zero-shot reasoning abilities demonstrated by the Zero-shot-CoT method. (Black et al. 2021)

  • Consider employing prompt engineering techniques to enhance the performance of existing AI for code models, rather than relying solely on fine-tuning or additional data acquisition. (Mark Chen et al. 2021)

  • Carefully consider the choice of pre-trained language models, prompt engineering techniques, answer engineering approaches, and multi-prompt learning strategies when implementing prompt-based learning methods in natural language processing. (P. Liu et al. 2021)

  • Carefully craft prompts for large language models to elicit desired emotional responses and improve the performance of chatbots in handling emotionally charged interactions. (NA?)

  • Consider utilizing prompt-based prototyping with large language models to reduce barriers of access, speed up the prototyping process, and improve communication among collaborators, while acknowledging the challenges associated with reverse engineering prompt designs, sourcing example data, debugging, and evaluating prompt effectiveness. (NA?)

  • Develop a systematic method to automatically align user intentions with the specific prompt preferences of each large language model (LLM) in natural language processing (NLP) applications, leading to enhanced performance across various downstream tasks. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the choice of examples, token length, and ordering within the prompt when conducting prompt engineering for large language models like Codex, as these factors significantly impact the quality of generated code. (NA?)

  • Use automatic prompt engineering techniques to generate diverse natural language text, which can then be utilized to create optimal prompt templates for various tasks, thereby enabling large language models to effectively solve those tasks. (NA?)

  • Carefully select and engineer appropriate prompt templates and answer sets to enable accurate predictions from pre-trained language models across diverse natural language processing tasks. (NA?)

  • Optimize prompt engineering for natural language generation (NLG) output that has hermeneutic value for individual users, considering hermeneuticity to be subjectively determined by the reader and aiming for output that encourages critical reflection on personal assumptions and worldviews. (NA?)

  • Consider employing the “prompt-tuning” paradigm for pre-training language models (PLMs) in order to enhance your performance in medical text classification tasks. (NA?)

  • Consider employing prompt-based fine-tuning instead of standard fine-tuning for text classification tasks in low-resource languages like Urdu and Roman Urdu, as it significantly improves accuracy by up to 13% compared to traditional approaches. (NA?)

  • Consider integrating trusted knowledge sources into traditional language models to enhance your accuracy and reliability in addressing domain-specific queries. (NA?)

  • Focus on creating effective prompts for large language models (LLMs) using techniques such as chain-of-thought, few-shot learning, template usage, and prompt tuning to maximize accuracy, efficiency, and creativity in generating outputs across various domains. (NA?)

  • Focus on addressing the challenge of effectively utilizing pre-training knowledge in prompt learning for building foundation models when developing large-scale pre-trained and fine-tuned models. (NA?)

  • Consider implementing the proposed Soft Prompt Construction (SPC) framework to enhance cross-domain generalization capabilities in language models. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the use of multi-turn dialogue prompts when working with GPT-3.5 for machine translation tasks, as it significantly improves the translation quality of the model. (NA?)

Chatbots And Dialogue Systems

  • Consider incorporating large-scale language models (LLMs) in your dialogue systems, as demonstrated by the success of the team that utilized them in the competition, and focus on effectively using real-time information to enhance the performance of your systems. (Minato et al. 2024)

  • Carefully consider the choice between shared and separate contexts when using ChatGPT for software testing education, as shared context tends to yield more accurate answers and explanations. (Jalil et al. 2023)

  • Use a small set of expert-written conversations as in-context examples to synthesize a social conversation dataset using prompting, allowing them to generate high-quality conversational data without the need for extensive human annotation. (Maximillian Chen et al. 2023)

  • Continuously monitor the behavior of large language models (LLMs) like GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 over time, as your performance and behavior can vary significantly across different versions, potentially causing issues in integrating them into larger workflows and reproducing results. (L. Chen, Zaharia, and Zou 2023)

  • Consider using TikTok data to understand students perspectives on ChatGPT, as it provides valuable insights into your interests and concerns, and offers a unique viewpoint compared to traditional survey methods.’ (Haensch et al. 2023)

  • Consider leveraging pre-existing audio foundation models instead of training multi-modal LLMs from scratch when developing systems for understanding and generating audio modality in spoken dialogues. (R. Huang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully consider the implications of personalization in large language models, balancing the benefits of increased user satisfaction and engagement against the potential risks of reinforcing individual biases, creating echo chambers, and compromising social cohesion. (Kirk et al. 2023)

  • Conduct a comprehensive evaluation of ChatGPT and similar large language models across multiple languages and tasks to understand your capabilities and limitations in multilingual NLP applications. (Lai et al. 2023)

  • Carefully consider the potential biases in GPT detectors against non-native English writers, and strive to develop more robust and equitable detection methods that take into account the linguistic nuances of non-native authors. (W. Liang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully consider the potential impact of linguistic ambiguity on natural language processing (NLP) systems, particularly in terms of lexical, syntactic, and semantic ambiguity, and develop appropriate methods to address these issues in order to enhance the accuracy and reliability of NLP applications. (Ortega-Martín et al. 2023)

  • Conduct formative user interviews to understand user perceptions and challenges associated with prompting large language models, and subsequently design interactive systems like PromptMind to streamline the iterative process of prompt exploration and refinement for improved chatbot responses. (G. Su, Yang, and Guo 2023)

  • Use large language models (LLMs) to recursively generate summaries as memory, allowing the LLM to efficiently update its knowledge base and generate more consistent responses in long-term conversations. (Q. Wang et al. 2023)

  • Consider the potential impact of ChatGPT on various industries, particularly in areas like scientific writing, education, and medicine, while addressing the associated challenges such as technical limitations, misuse, ethical concerns, and regulatory policies. (C. Zhang et al. 2023)

  • Carefully evaluate the reliability and accuracy of AI-generated content, such as ChatGPT, before integrating it into your academic writing, and consider implementing measures to maintain scientific rigor and transparency. (Alkaissi and McFarlane 2023)

  • Consider unifying the four tasks in multi-goal conversational recommender systems (MG-CRS) into the same sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) paradigm, allowing for better integration and understanding of the complexities inherent in MG-CRS. (Y. Deng et al. 2022)

  • Carefully consider the interaction modalities, knowledge elements, and computational tasks involved in developing conversational recommender systems (CRS) to ensure effective and engaging user experiences. (Jannach et al. 2021)

  • Consider using an incremental graph parsing algorithm to dynamically infer social relations and individual attributes from dialogues, enabling accurate tracking of evolving social interactions and improved understanding of human language. (Hui Chen et al. 2020)

  • Carefully consider and address various types of annotation errors in dialogue state tracking tasks, including delayed markups, multi-annotations, mis-annotations, typos, forgotten values, and inconsistencies between slot values and ontology, through a combination of manual and automated corrections. (Eric et al. 2019)

  • Consider both Intellectual Quotient (IQ) and Emotional Quotient (EQ) while designing social chatbots, focusing on user engagement and defining the success metric as conversation-turns per session (CPS). (Shum, He, and Li 2018)

  • Focus on developing end-to-end models for negotiation tasks, utilizing techniques such as self-play and dialogue rollouts to optimize performance. (Bahdanau, Cho, and Bengio 2014)

  • Aim to develop a generic dialogue shell for practical dialogues, which are focused on accomplishing specific tasks, as opposed to attempting to replicate full human conversational competence. (ALLEN et al. 2000)

  • Carefully consider the choice of system prompts when modifying Large Language Models for specific tasks, such as acting as an AI Psychologist, to optimize your performance and suitability for the intended domain. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the unique characteristics of each dialogue system class (task-oriented, conversational agents, and interactive question answering) when selecting and implementing evaluation methods, as these characteristics significantly affect the suitability and performance of different evaluation techniques. (NA?)

  • Employ a descriptive study design to compare the performance of ChatGPT with that of health sciences faculty students in answering anatomy course questions, using a multiple-choice test comprising 40 questions on the covered material. (NA?)

  • Exercise careful judgement and rigorous human oversight when using AI tools like ChatGPT in scientific writing, ensuring transparency about your use and avoiding reliance on them for core research tasks. (NA?)

  • Use a structured narrative prompt to ensure transparency, consistency, and traceability when transforming agent data into natural-sounding narratives, allowing for effective sentiment analysis and comparison with real tweets. (NA?)

  • Carefully consider the trustworthiness, value, and potential dangers of AI-generated health information, particularly when comparing it to traditional sources like Google, and acknowledge the current limitations of such systems, such as outdated data, lack of transparency, and occasional hallucinations. (NA?)

  • Carefully engineer prompts to maximize the accuracy and consistency of GPT-4s responses in medical applications, particularly for strong recommendations where the ROT style demonstrated the highest overall consistency.’ (NA?)

  • Carefully engineer your prompts to include context, define symbols, specify desired format and structure, provide background information, apply constraints and limitations, and iterate refinements to optimize the accuracy and reliability of ChatGPTs responses.’ (NA?)

Named Entity Recognition And Disambiguation

  • Consider using a template-free approach called Entity-oriented Language Model (EntLM) fine-tuning for few-shot Named Entity Recognition (NER) tasks, as it offers improved efficiency and accuracy compared to traditional template-based methods. (R. Ma et al. 2021)

  • Focus on developing a comprehensive understanding of the complex interplay between context features, mentions, entities, and knowledge graphs in order to effectively solve the named entity linking problem. (W. Shi et al. 2020)

  • Leverage free open data sources like DBpedia and Wikipedia to automatically generate labeled datasets for Named Entity Recognition (NER) tasks, thereby reducing the need for expensive human-annotated datasets. (Menezes, Savarese, and Milidiú 2019)

  • Carefully consider how to effectively link events and locations within text data for accurate analysis and interpretation. (Halterman 2019)

  • Use optimal transport theory to dually optimize entity-level and group-level losses in cross-lingual entity alignment, improving alignment accuracy. (Pei, Yu, and Zhang 2019)

  • Prioritize using full-text articles rather than abstracts alone for text mining tasks, as doing so leads to improved accuracy and performance in identifying biologically relevant associations. (Westergaard et al. 2017)

  • Utilize multiple techniques from machine learning and natural language processing to develop effective named entity recognition (NER) systems for accurately identifying biological entities in text, taking into account the challenges posed by ambiguous terminology, inconsistencies in nomenclature, and complex multi-word names. (Leser and Hakenberg 2005)

  • Focus on developing a robust semantic interpretation framework for accurately identifying the correct senses of complex domain terms and your relationships, which is crucial for improving ontology development, document retrieval, and multilingual communication. (NA?)

  • Utilize a combination of methods, including dictionary generation, occurrence detection, and filtering of matches, to accurately identify and distinguish between protein and gene names within biomedical texts. (NA?)

  • Focus on developing a comprehensive feature set that effectively represents the task at hand, combining both basic orthographic and character-based predicates with domain-specific expert knowledge, such as gene and protein lexicons, to enhance the overall performance of the conditional random field (CRF) model. (NA?)

  • Focus on creating a high-quality, manually annotated text corpus for chemical entity recognition, ensuring that it covers diverse chemical disciplines and follows strict annotation guidelines to improve the accuracy and consistency of chemical entity identification. (NA?)

  • Consider implementing a joint machine learning model for simultaneous named entity recognition (NER) and normalization during both training and prediction phases, as it leads to improved performance compared to traditional sequential pipelines. (NA?)

Word Embeddings And Sense Disambiguation

  • Consider combining low-level semantic processing tasks like word sense disambiguation, anaphora resolution, named entity recognition, concept extraction, and subjectivity detection with high-level natural language processing tasks to create innovative solutions and advance the field of computational linguistics. (R. Mao et al. 2023)

  • Utilize a unified evaluation framework for Word Sense Disambiguation tasks, which involves standardizing datasets and training corpora into a uniform format, semi-automatically converting annotations to WordNet 3.0, and applying consistent preprocessing pipelines. (Park, Shin, and Lee 2022)

  • Leverage the power of pre-trained language models like BERT to improve the accuracy of ontology subsumption predictions, particularly when dealing with complex ontologies expressed in languages like OWL. (J. Chen et al. 2022)

  • Move beyond treating words as discrete entities and instead represent them as vectors, enabling better understanding of semantic relationships between words and improved performance in natural language processing tasks. (Smith 2020)

  • Incorporate weak-supervision directly at the word sense level, instead of operating solely at the word form level, to improve lexical understanding in natural language processing tasks. (Levine et al. 2019)

  • Consider using a combination of manual, semi-automatic, automatic, and collaborative methods to create sense-annotated corpora for various languages and resources, such as WordNet, Wikipedia, and BabelNet, in order to improve the quality and quantity of available data for research and evaluation purposes. (Pasini and Camacho-Collados 2018)

  • Leverage BabelNet, a multilingual lexicalized semantic network, to create a large-scale high-quality corpus of sense-annotated textual definitions by combining definitions from different resources and languages, and refining the disambiguation output with a distributional approach based on semantic similarity. (Camacho-Collados et al. 2018)

  • Utilize a comprehensive framework to understand and address predictive biases in NLP systems, including recognizing four major sources of bias: label bias, selection bias, model overamplification, and semantic bias. (Blodgett and O’Connor 2017)

  • Carefully control for the choice of pre-trained word embeddings and the handling of out-of-vocabulary tokens at test time when comparing different architectures for reading comprehension tasks, as these factors can have a greater impact on performance than architectural choices. (Dhingra et al. 2017)

  • Employ a knowledge-based +/-effect coarse-grained sense disambiguation method based on selectional preferences modeled via topic models to accurately analyze implicit sentiment in text. (Pang, Lee, and Vaithyanathan 2002)

  • Recognize that word senses are not fixed entities, but rather depend on the specific purpose and context of the task at hand. (Kilgarriff 1997)

  • Focus on identifying architectural explanations for the parsers observed structural preferences, which can lead to deeper understanding of the parsing machinery and its design.’ (NA?)

Advances In Artificial Intelligence And Nlp

  • Integrate AI technologies, specifically ChatGPT, into your studies to enhance students learning effectiveness, distribute educational resources more evenly, and improve the overall quality of education.’ (Dempere et al. 2023)

  • Utilise neural machine translation to convert internal state-action representations of an autonomous agent into natural language, allowing for more accurate and human-friendly explanations of the agents behaviour.’ (Ehsan et al. 2017)

Deep Learning Advances

  • Identify a feature X such that (i) large language models have X, and (ii) if a system has X, then it is probably conscious, while providing good reasons for (i) and (ii) to explore the possibility of consciousness in AI systems. (Chalmers 2023)

  • Carefully construct false-belief tasks and include true-belief controls to ensure accurate evaluation of large language models ability to infer unobservable mental states.’ (Kosinski 2023)

  • Focus on developing algorithms that enforce local typicality in language generation, as this approach leads to higher-quality text with fewer degenerate repetitions. (Breiman 1957)

Advancements In Machine Translation

  • Consider employing “pivot prompting” - a novel approach whereby ChatGPT is asked to translate the source sentence into a high-resource pivot language (such as English) before translating it into the target language. This method was found to significantly enhance the translation performance for distant languages, making it a valuable tool for future research in machine translation. (Jiao et al. 2023)

  • Consider using large language models like GPT-3.5 and above for translation quality assessment, as they achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in comparison to human labels. (Kocmi and Federmann 2023)

  • Adopt prompt-based fine-tuning with informative evidence to improve the performance of critical error detection (CED) in English-Korean translation. (Bérard, Calapodescu, and Roux 2019)

  • Carefully assess the similarity of term-document matrices (TDMs) and topic model outputs derived from gold standard and machine-translated texts to ensure minimal loss of information during cross-language comparisons. (Vries, Schoonvelde, and Schumacher 2018)

  • Consider utilizing synchronous tree substitution grammar (STSG) for learning non-isomorphic tree mappings in machine translation tasks, as it permits local distortion of tree topology and can be extended to train on pairs of forests, allowing for greater flexibility in handling complex language structures. (Eisner 2003)

  • Consider adopting a joint source-channel model for machine transliteration tasks, as it enables direct orthographical mapping (DOM) between two different languages, leading to improved transliteration accuracy compared to traditional methods. (NA?)

  • Consider utilizing the Bible as a massive parallel corpus for natural language processing tasks, particularly for low-resource languages, due to its wide range of translations and unique identification of verses allowing for automatic, unambiguous alignment across languages. (NA?)

  • Consider utilising a combination of deep reinforcement learning and explicit lexical simplification techniques within an encoder-decoder model to optimise the quality of sentence simplification results. (NA?)

  • Use direct assessments (DA) instead of relative ranking (RR) when evaluating machine translation quality, as DA correlates strongly with RR and offers advantages like evaluating absolute translation quality and enabling quality-controlled crowd-sourcing. (NA?)

  • Utilize Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) for more accurate and reliable quality assessment of machine translation outputs, particularly when dealing with low-resource language pairs. (NA?)

Multi-Modal Processing

  • Consider integrating a small audio encoder into large language models (LLMs) to enhance your speech recognition capabilities, potentially achieving superior performance compared to monolingual baselines. (Fathullah et al. 2023)

  • Consider imposing syntactic constraints on paraphrases extracted from parallel corpora to enhance your quality and maintain grammaticality. (NA?)

Resources And Datasets

  • Consider creating and maintaining a massive corpus for low-resource languages, such as Ukrainian, to provide a strong foundation for natural language processing tasks, enabling the development of contemporary language models and word embeddings, ultimately improving the performance of numerous downstream tasks. (Chaplynskyi 2023)

  • Utilise the NusaCrowd platform to access and leverage its extensive range of standardised Indonesian language datasets, thereby facilitating improved performance in Natural Language Processing tasks. (Altaher et al. 2022)

  • Leverage the unique characteristics of news article revision histories, specifically your ability to reflect updates to rapidly changing events, to improve existing NLP tasks and explore new ones. (Spangher and May 2021)

  • Utilize a balanced corpus, specifically the “Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese” (BCCWJ), to ensure accurate representation and diversity in your studies of the Japanese language. (NA?)

  • Utilize large eyetracking corpora of natural reading to better understand and evaluate language models that go beyond the word level, enabling examination of numerous variables at various processing levels and your interactions, ultimately improving the generalizability of findings. (NA?)

Publicly Available Datasets


Abukhalaf, Seif, Mohammad Hamdaqa, and Foutse Khomh. 2023. “On Codex Prompt Engineering for OCL Generation: An Empirical Study.” arXiv.
Adak, Sayantan, Altaf Ahmad, Aditya Basu, and Animesh Mukherjee. 2022. “Placing (Historical) Facts on a Timeline: A Classification Cum Coref Resolution Approach.” arXiv.
Addlesee, Angus, Weronika Sieińska, Nancie Gunson, Daniel Hernández Garcia, Christian Dondrup, and Oliver Lemon. 2023. “Multi-Party Goal Tracking with LLMs: Comparing Pre-Training, Fine-Tuning, and Prompt Engineering.” arXiv.
Agirre, Eneko, Carmen Banea, Claire Cardie, Daniel Cer, Mona Diab, Aitor Gonzalez-Agirre, Weiwei Guo, Rada Mihalcea, German Rigau, and Janyce Wiebe. 2014. “SemEval-2014 Task 10: Multilingual Semantic Textual Similarity.” Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2014).
Agrawal, Sweta, and Marine Carpuat. 2022. “An Imitation Learning Curriculum for Text Editing with Non-Autoregressive Models.” Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers).
Ahmed, Toufique, Supriyo Ghosh, Chetan Bansal, Thomas Zimmermann, Xuchao Zhang, and Saravan Rajmohan. 2023. “Recommending Root-Cause and Mitigation Steps for Cloud Incidents Using Large Language Models.” arXiv.
Akyürek, Afra Feyza, Ekin Akyürek, Leshem Choshen, Derry Wijaya, and Jacob Andreas. 2024. “Deductive Closure Training of Language Models for Coherence, Accuracy, and Updatability.” arXiv.
Akyürek, Afra Feyza, Sejin Paik, Muhammed Yusuf Kocyigit, Seda Akbiyik, Şerife Leman Runyun, and Derry Wijaya. 2022. “On Measuring Social Biases in Prompt-Based Multi-Task Learning.” arXiv.
Ali, Mohammad Javed, and Ali Djalilian. 2023. “Readership Awareness Series – Paper 4: Chatbots and ChatGPT - Ethical Considerations in Scientific Publications.” Seminars in Ophthalmology 38 (March).
Alkaissi, Hussam, and Samy I McFarlane. 2023. “Artificial Hallucinations in ChatGPT: Implications in Scientific Writing.” Cureus, February.
ALLEN, JAMES, DONNA BYRON, MYROSLAVA DZIKOVSKA, GEORGE FERGUSON, LUCIAN GALESCU, and AMANDA STENT. 2000. “An Architecture for a Generic Dialogue Shell.” Natural Language Engineering 6 (September).
Alt, Christoph, Marc Hübner, and Leonhard Hennig. 2019. “Improving Relation Extraction by Pre-Trained Language Representations.” arXiv.
Altaher, Yousef, Ali Fadel, Mazen Alotaibi, Mazen Alyazidi, Mishari Al-Mutairi, Mutlaq Aldhbuiub, Abdulrahman Mosaibah, et al. 2022. “Masader Plus: A New Interface for Exploring +500 Arabic NLP Datasets,” August.
Althoff, Tim, Kevin Clark, and Jure Leskovec. 2016. “Large-Scale Analysis of Counseling Conversations: An Application of Natural Language Processing to Mental Health.” Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics 4 (December).
Alturayeif, Nora, Hamzah Luqman, and Moataz Ahmed. 2023. “A Systematic Review of Machine Learning Techniques for Stance Detection and Its Applications.” Neural Computing and Applications 35 (January).
Amatriain, Xavier. 2024. “Prompt Design and Engineering: Introduction and Advanced Methods.” arXiv.
Amin, Mostafa M., Erik Cambria, and Björn W. Schuller. 2023. “Will Affective Computing Emerge from Foundation Models and General AI? A First Evaluation on ChatGPT.” arXiv.
Amodei, Dario, Rishita Anubhai, Eric Battenberg, Carl Case, Jared Casper, Bryan Catanzaro, Jingdong Chen, et al. 2015. “Deep Speech 2: End-to-End Speech Recognition in English and Mandarin.” arXiv.
Anand, Yuvanesh, Zach Nussbaum, Adam Treat, Aaron Miller, Richard Guo, Ben Schmidt, GPT4All Community, Brandon Duderstadt, and Andriy Mulyar. 2023. “GPT4All: An Ecosystem of Open Source Compressed Language Models.” arXiv.
Angelidis, Stefanos, and Mirella Lapata. 2018. “Summarizing Opinions: Aspect Extraction Meets Sentiment Prediction and They Are Both Weakly Supervised.” arXiv.
Aowal, Md Abdul, Maliha T Islam, Priyanka Mary Mammen, and Sandesh Shetty. 2023. “Detecting Natural Language Biases with Prompt-Based Learning.” arXiv.
Arif, Taha Bin, Uzair Munaf, and Ibtehaj Ul-Haque. 2023. “The Future of Medical Education and Research: Is ChatGPT a Blessing or Blight in Disguise?” Medical Education Online 28 (February).
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